References

1. Geddes, I.C. and T.C. Gray, Hyperventilation for the maintenance of anaesthesia. Lancet, 1959, 2: pp. 4-6.

2. Laborit, H. and P. Huguenard, L'hibernation artificielle par moyens pharmacody-namiques et physiques. Presse Med, 1951, 59: pp. 1359-1365.

3. De Castro, G. and P. Mundeler, Anesthésie sans sommeil: "Neurolpetanalgésie". Acta Chir Belg, 1959, 58: pp. 689-693.

10 b 10"6

10 "7

10 8

10 "9

Lofentanil Pethidine Morphine Metke- ji-Ervdorphin phamid

Figure 111-81. Different magnitude in antinociceptive action (shock titration test in the monkey) of various agents applied epidurally (mol/l) (Adapted from [246])

4. De Castro, J., P. Viars, and J.C. Leleu, Utilisation de la Pentazocine comme antimor-phinique et analgesique dans une technique d'anesthesie analgesique sequentielle, in Utilisation de la Pentazocine en anesthesie-reanimation, J. De Castro, P. Viars, and J.C. Leleu, Editors, 1969, Ars Medici: Bruxelles. pp. 33-36.

5. Flacke, J.W., W.E. Flacke, and G.D. Williams, Acute pulmonary edema following naloxone reversal of high dose morphine anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 1977, 47: pp. 376-378.

6. Gasparetto, A. and G. Giron, Clinical value of vitamin anesthesia: Thiamine algosy-naptolysis according to De Castro and Mundeleer. Acta Anaesthesiol, 1964, 15: pp. 699-710.

7. Freye, E. and H. Agoutin, The action of vitamin B1 (thiamine) on the cardiovascular system of the cat. Biomedicine, 1978, 28: pp. 315-319.

8. Freye, E. and E. Hartung, The potential use of thiamine (Vit.Bl) in patients with cardiac insufficiency. Acta Vtaminol Enzymol, 1982, 4: pp. 285-290.

9. Lobera, A. and J.L. Renaud-Salis, General anesthesia in major cancer surgery of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Significance of a fentanyl-thiamine combination. Ann Anesthesiol Fr, 1976, 17: pp. 621-627.

10. Lagler, F., et al., Toxikologische Untersuchungen mit Tramadol, einem neuen Analgetikum. Drug Res, 1978, 28 (I): pp. 164-172.

11. Cookson, R.F., Carfentanil and lofentanil. Clin & Anaesthesiol, 1983, 1: pp. 156-158.

12. Leysen, J.E., W. Gommeren, and C.J.E. Niemegeers, 3H-sufentanil, a superior ligand for the mu-opiate receptor: binding properties and regional distribution in rat brain and spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol, 1983, 87: pp. 209-225.

13. Niemegeers, C.J.E. and P.A.J. Janssen, Alfentanil (R 39 209) - a particularly short-acting narcotic analgesic in rats. Drug Dev Res, 1981, 1: pp. 83-88.

14. De Castro, J., Association des analgésiques centraux et des neuroleptiques en cours d'intervention, in Les analgésiques et la douleur. Influences pharmacologiques diverses exercées sur morphiniques, G. Vourch, et al., Editors, 1971, Masson: Paris. pp. 185-194; 383-403.

15. De Castro, J., S. Andrieu, and J. Boogaerts, Buprenorphine: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutical uses. New Drug Series, ed. J. De Castro (Eds) Vol. 1. 1982, Kluwer: Antwerpen NVM & ISA. 180.

16. Bovill, J.G., et al., The pharmacokinetics of alfentanil (R 39209): a new opioid analgesic. Anesthesiology, 1982, 57: pp. 439-443.

17. Sebel, P.S., et al., Effects of high dose fentanyl anesthesia on the electroencephalogram. Anesthesiology, 1981, 55: pp. 203-211.

18. Stanley, T.H. and S. de Lange, Comparison of sufentanil-oxygen andfentanyl-oxygen anesthesia for mitral and aortic valvular surgery. J Cardiothoracic Anesth, 1988, 2: pp. 6-11.

19. De Lange, S., et al., Comparison of sufentanil-02 andfentanyl-02 for coronary artery surgery. Anesthesiology, 1982, 56: pp. 112-118.

20. Tolksdorf, W., et al., Adrenalin-, Noradrenalin-, Blutdruck- und Herzfreqenzverhalten während der Intubation in Abhängigkeit unterschiedlicher Fentanyl-Dosen. Anästh Intenivther Notfallmed, 1987, 22: pp. 171-176.

21. Stark, R.D., et al., A review of the safety and tolerance of propofol (Diprivan™). Postgrad Med J, 1985, 61: pp. 152-156.

22. Grant, I.S. and N. MacKenzie, Recovery following propofol (Diprivan) anaesthesia-a review of three different anaesthetic techniques. Postgrad Med J, 1985,61: pp. 133-137.

23. Cockshott, I.D., Propofol (Diprivan) pharmacokinetics and metabolism-an overview. Postgrad Med J, 1985, 61: pp. 45-50.

24. Becker, L.D., et al., Biphasic respiratory depression after fentanyl-droperidol or fentanyl alone used to supplement nitrous oxide anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 1976, 44: pp. 291-296.

25. Habib, A.S. and T.J. Gan, Food and Drug Administration black box warning on the perioperative use of deoperidol: a review of the cases. Anesth Analg, 2003, 96: pp. 1377-1379.

26. Kissin, I., et al., Alfentanilpotentiates midazolam-induced unconsciousness in subanal-gesic doses. Anesth Analg, 1990, 71: pp. 65-69.

27. Oldendorf, H., et al., Clinical pharmacokinetics of midazolam in intensive care patients, a wide interpatient variability? Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1988, 43: pp. 263-269.

28. Geller, E., et al., Risk and benefits of therapy with flumazenil (Anexate®) in mixed drug intoxications. Eur Neurol, 1991, 31: pp. 241-250.

29. Freye, E. and A. Fournell, Postoperative Demaskierung einer überhängenden Vigilanzminderung nach Midazolameinleitung durch den Antagonisten Flumazenil (Ro 15-1788). Anaesthesist, 1988, 37: pp. 162-166.

30. Freye, E., B. Neruda, and K. Falke, Flumazenil (Anexate®) for the reversal of residual benzodiazepine activity. Drugs Today, 1989, 25: pp. 119-124.

31. Bergmann, S.A., et al., GABA agonists enhancer morphine and fentanyl antinoci-ception in rabbit tooth pulp and mouse hot plate test. Drug Dev Res, 1988, 14: pp. 111-122.

32. Tejwani, G.A., et al., Inhibition of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence by a benzodiazepine receptor agonist midazolam in the rat. Anesth Analg, 1993, 76: pp. 1052-1060.

33. Luger, T.J., et al., The spinal potentiation effect and the supraspinal inhibitory effect of midazolam on opioid-induced analgesia in rats. Eur J Pharmacol, 1995, 275: pp. 153-162.

34. Rosland, J.H., S. Hunskaar, and K. Hole, Diazepam attenuates morphine antinoci-ception test-dependently in mice. Pharmacol Toxicol, 1990, 66: pp. 382-386.

35. Luger, T.J., et al., Mechanisms of the influence of midazolam on morphine antinoci-ception at spinal and supraspinal levels in rats. Eur J Pharmacol, 1994, 271: pp. 421-431.

36. Luger, T.J., H.F. Hill, and A. Schlager, Can midazolam diminish sufentanil analgesia in patients with major trauma? A retrospective study with 43 patients. Drug Metab Drug Interact, 1992, 10: pp. 177-184.

37. Michaels, I. and P.C. Barash, Does nitrous oxide or a reduced FI02 alter the hemodanymic function during high dose sufentanil anesthesia? Anesth Analg, 1983, 62: p. 275.

38. Murphy, M.R. and C.C. Hug, The enflurane sparing effect of morphine, butorphanol, and nalbuphine. Anesthesiology, 1982, 57: pp. 489-492.

39. Hall, R.I., M.R. Murphy, and C.C. Hug, The enflurane sparing effect of sufentanil in dogs. Anesthesiology, 1987, 67: pp. 518-525.

40. Murphy, M.R. and C.C. Hug, The anesthetic potency of fentanyl in terms of its reduction of enflurane MAC. Anesthesiology, 1982, 57: pp. 485-488.

41. Hecker, B.R., et al., The decrease of the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration produced by sufentanil in rats. Anesth Analg, 1983, 62: pp. 987-990.

42. Härtung, E., E. Freye, and H. Dehnen-Seipel, Enflurane in cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesth Belg, 1982, 33: pp. 141-145.

43. Härtung, E. and E. Freye, An open comparison ofpropofol and enflurane for prolonged abdominal operations. Anaesthesia, 1988, 43: pp. 105-107.

44. Ismaily, A.J., et al., Die Auswirkungen einer Kombinationsanästhesie mit Fentanyl und Enfluran auf den Kreislauf und die unmittelbare postoperative Phase. Anäst Intensivmed, 1987, 28: pp. 216-220.

45. Hartung, H.J., Klinische Erfahrungen mit Alfentanil zur "balanced anesthesia" bei Oberbauch-Eingriffen. Anaesthesist, 1988, 37: pp. 620-624.

46. Stanley, T.H., Comparison of alfentanil with thiopental sodium for induction of anesthesia. 1982, Janssen Pharmazeutika, Beerse, Belgien.

47. Smith, N.T., et al., An electroencephalographic comparison of alfentanil with other narcotics and with thiopental. J Clin Monit, 1985, 1: pp. 236-244.

48. Redmond, D.E. and Y.H. Hwang, The primate locus coeruleus and affects of clonidine on opiate withdrawal. J Clin Psychiatr, 1982, 43: pp. 25-31.

49. Eisenach, J.C., S.Z. Lysak, and C.M. Viscomi, Epidural clonidine analgesia following sugery. Phase I. Anesthesiology, 1989, 71: pp. 640-646.

50. Eisenach, J.C., et al., Epidural clonidine analgesia for intractable cancer pain. Phase I. Anesthesiology, 1989, 71: pp. 647-652.

51. Eisenach, J.C., et al., The epidural clonidine study group: epidural clonidine analgesia for intractable cancer pain. Pain, 1995, 61: pp. 391-399.

52. Flacke, J.W., et al., Reduced narcotic requirement by clonidine with improved hemody-namic and adrenergic stability in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Anesthesiology, 1987, 67: pp. 11-19.

53. Ghignone, M., Effects of clonidine on narcotic requirements and hemodynamic response during induction of fentanyl anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. Anesthesiology, 1987, 67: pp. 3-10.

54. Aantaa, R., A. Kallio, and R. Virtanen, Dexmedetomidine, a novel alpha2-adrenergic agonist: A review of its pharmacodynamic profile. Drugs Future, 1993, 18: pp. 49-56.

55. Noyer, M., et al., Mivazerol, a novel compound with high binding specificity for alpha2 adrenergic receptor: binding studies on different human and rat membrane preparations. Neurochem Int, 1994, 24: pp. 221-229.

56. McSPI-Europe, Perioperative sympathicolysis. Beneficial effects of the alpha2-agonist mivazerol on hemodynamic stability and myocardial ischemia. Anesthesiology, 1997, 86: pp. 346-363.

57. Carabine, U.A., K.R. Milligan, and J. Moore, Extradural clonidine and bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia. Br J Anaesthesia, 1992, 68 (2): pp. 132-135.

58. Motsch, J., E. Gräber, and K. Ludwig, Addition of clonidine enhances postoperative analgesia from epidural morphine; a double blind study. Anesthesiology, 1990, 73: pp. 1067-1073.

59. Gabriel, A.H., et al., Clonidine: an adjunct in isoflurane N20/02 relaxant anaesthesia. Anaesthesia, 1995, 50: pp. 290-296.

60. Engelman, E., et al., Effects of clonidine on anesthetic requirements and hemodynamic response during aortic surgery. Anesthesiolgy, 1989, 71: pp. 178-187.

61. Hoffmann, W.E., et al., Dexmedetomidine improves neurologic outcome from incomplete ischemia in the rat: reversal by the alpha2 antagonist atipamezole. Anesthesi-ology, 1991, 75: pp. 328-332.

62. Jarrot, B., et al., Clonidine: understanding its disposition, sites and mechanism of action. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 1987, 14: pp. 471-479.

63. Bjoerkqvist, S.E., Clonidine in alcohol withdrawal. Acta Psychiat Scand, 1975, 52: p. 256.

64. Kleber, H.D., et al., Clonidine and naltrexone in the outpatient treatment of heroin withdrawal. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 1987, 13 (1, 2): pp. 1-17.

65. Vining, D.H., T.R. Kosten, and H.D. Kleber, Clinical utility of rapid clonidine-naltrexone detoxification for opioid abusers. Br J Addict, 1988, 63: pp. 567-575.

66. Striebel, H.W., D. Koenigs, and T. Heil, Clonidin - Stellenwert in der Anästhesie. Anaesthesist, 1993, 42: pp. 131-141.

67. Maze, M. and W. Tranquilli, Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists: defining the role in clinical anesthesisa. Anesthesiology, 1991, 74: pp. 581-605.

68. Cube von, B., et al., Permeation morphinartiger Substanzen an den Ort der antinoci-ceptiven Wirkung im Gehirn in Abhängigkeit von ihrer Lipoidlöslichkeit nach intravenöser und nach intraventrikulärer Applikation. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 1970, 265: pp. 455-473.

69. Prys-Roberts, C. and C.E. Hug, Pharmacokinetics of Anaesthesia. 1984, Blackwell: Oxford Scientific Publications.

70. Hug, C.C.J., Pharmacokinetics of new synthetic narcotic analgesics, in Opioids in Anesthesia, F.G. Estafanous, Editor, 1984, Butterworth: Boston. pp. 50-60.

71. Westmoreland, C., et al., Pharmacokinetics of remifentanil (GI87084B). Anesthesiology, 1993, 79 (3A): p. A372.

72. Hermann, D.J., et al., Pharmacokinetic comparison of GI87084B, a novel ultra-short acting opioid, and alfentanil. Anesthesiology, 1991, 75: p. A379.

73. Taeger, K., et al., Uptake of fentanyl by human lung. Anesthesiology, 1984, 61: p. A246.

74. Cube von, B., et al., Permeation of morphine-like substances to their site of antinoci-ceptive action in the brain after intravenous and intraventricular application and dependence on lipid solubility. Arch Pharmacol, 1970, 265: pp. 455-502.

75. Stanski, D.R. and C.C. Hug, Alfentanil-a kinetically predictable narcotic analgesic. Anesthesiology, 1982, 57: pp. 435-438.

76. Schenk, H.D., F.B.M. Ensink, and M. Rhönisch, Alfentanil - Porträt eines Opioids zur Anästhesie. 1993, Urban & Schwarzenberg: München-Wien-Baltimore. 1-144.

77. Scott, J.G., J.E. Cooke, and D.R. Stanski, Electroencephalographic quantitation of opioid effects: comparative pharmacodnamics of fentanyl and sufentanil. Anesthesiology, 1991, 74: pp. 34-42.

78. Michiels, M., R. Hendricks, and J. Heykants, A sensitive radioimmunassay for fentanyl: plasma levels in dogs and man. Eur J Pharmacol, 1974, 12: p. 153.

79. Miller, R.D., IV drug delivery systems, in Anesthesia. 2000, Churchill Livingstone: Oxford. pp. 377-408.

80. Shafer, S.L. and S.R. Varvel, Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and rational opioid selection. Anesthesiology, 1991, 74: pp. 1136-1138.

81. Scott, J.C., K.V. Ponganis, and D.R. Stanski, EEG quantification of narcotic effect: the comparative pharmacodynamics of fentanyl and alfentanil. Anesthesiology, 1985, 62: pp. 234-241.

82. Lemmens, H.J.M., et al., The application of pharmacokinetics dynamics and computer simulations to drug development: A-3665 versus fentanyl and alfentanil. Anesthesiology, 1992, 77 (3A): p. A456.

83. Ausems, M.E., D.R. Stanski, and C.C.J. Hug, An evaluation of the accuracy of pharmacokinetic data for the computer assisted infusion of alfentanil. Br J Anaesth, 1985, 57: pp. 1217-1225.

84. Egan, T.D., et al., The pharmacokinetics of the new short-acting opioid remifentanil (GI87084B) in healthy adult male volunteers. Anesthesiology, 1993, 79: pp. 881-892.

85. McDonnell, T.E., R.R. Bartowski, and J.J. Williams, ED50 of alfentanil for induction of anesthesia in unpremedicated young adults. Anesthesiology, 1982, 57: p. A362.

86. Minto, C.F., T.W. Schnider, and S.L. Shafer, Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. II-Model application. Anesthesiology, 1997, 86: pp. 24-33.

87. Hughes, M.A., P.S.A. Glass, and J.R. Jacobs, Context-sensitive half-time in multicom-partment pharmacokinetic models for intravenous anesthetic drugs. Anesthesiology, 1992, 76: pp. 334-341.

88. Egan, T.D., Remifentanil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharma-cokinet, 1995, 29: pp. 80-94.

89. Read, D.J.C., A clinical method for assessing the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide. Aust Ann Med, 1979, 16: pp. 20-32.

90. Suttmann, H. and A. Doenicke, Interim report on dose-establishment with alfentanil. 1983, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Beerse, Belgium.

91. Freye, E., E. Hartung, and R. Buhl, Alfentanil als letzte Dosis (on-top) in der Neurolep-tanalgesie mit Fentanyl. Anaesthesist, 1986, 35: pp. 231-237.

92. Nauta, J., et al., Anesthetic induction with alfentanil: a new short-acting narcotic analgesic. Anest Analg, 1982, 61: pp. 267-272.

93. Sebel, P.S., N. De Brujin, and W.K. Neville, Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials during anesthesia with sufentanil or fentanyl. Anesthesiology, 1988, 69 (A312).

94. Kochs, E., et al., Modulation of pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials by general anesthesia. Anesth Analg, 1990, 71: pp. 225-2230.

95. Freye, E. and B. Neruda, Averaged somatosensory evoked potentials for intraoperative evaluation of analgesia in patients. J Clin Monit, 1988, 4: pp. 138-139.

96. Rundshagen, I., E. Kochs, and J. Schulte am Esch, Surgical stimulation increases median nerve somatosensory evoked responses during isoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth, 1995 (75).

97. Freye, E., Somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale (SEP) zur Algesiemetrie, in Alfentanil - Ein neues, ultrakurzwirkendes Opioid, M. Zindler and E. Hartung, Editors, 1985, Urban & Schwarzenberg: München-Wien-Baltimore. pp. 17-23.

98. Minto, C.F., et al., Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. I.Model development. Anesthesiology, 1997, 86: pp. 10-13.

99. Crawford, M.W., et al., Development of acute opioid tolerance during infusion of remifentanil for pediatric scoliosis surgery. Anwesth Analg, 2006, 102: pp. 1662-1667.

100. Guignard, B., et al., Acute opioid tolerance: intraoperative remifentanil increases postoperative pain and morphine requirements. Anesthesiology, 2000, 93: pp. 409-417.

101. Albrecht, S., et al., Postoperative pain control following remifentanil-based anaesthesia for major abdomional surgery. Anaesthesia, 2000, 55: pp. 315-322.

102. De Castro, J., et al., Comparative study of cardiovascular, neurological, and metabolic side effects of eight narcotics in dogs. Acta Anaesth Belg, 1979, 30: pp. 5-99.

103. Van Bever, W.F.M., et al., N-4-substituted 1-(2arylethyl)-4-piperidinyl-N-phenylpropanamides, a novel series of extremely poteut analgesics with unusually high safety margin. Drug Res/Arzneimittelforsch, 1978, 26: pp. 1548-1551.

104. Niemegeers, C.J.E., et al., Sufentanil, a very potent and extremely safe intravenous morphine-like compound in mice, rats and dogs. Drug Res/Arzneimittelforsch, 1976, 216: pp. 1551-1556.

105. Janssen, P.A.J., The development of new synthetic narcotics, in Opioids in Anesthesia, F.G. Estafanous, Editor, 1984, Butterworth: Boston. pp. 37-44.

106. Tollenaere, J.P. and H. Moereels, Atlas of the three-dimensional structure of drugs. 1979, Amsterdam, New York, Elsevier: Oxford/North Holland Biomedical Press.

107. Magnan, J., et al., The binding spectrum of narcotic analgesic drugs with different agonist and antagonist properties. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 1982, 319: pp. 197-205.

108. Flacke, J.W., et al., Comparison of meperidine, fentanyl and sufentanil in balanced anesthesia. Anesth Analg, 1985, 64: pp. 897-910.

109. De Lange, S., et al., Antidiuretic and growth hormone responses during coronary artery surgery with sufentanil-oxygen and alfentanil-oxygen anesthesia in man. Anesth Analg, 1982, 61: p. 434.

110. De Lange, S., et al., Catecholamine and cortisol responses to sufentanil-O2 and alfentanil-O2 anaesthesia during coronary artery surgery. Can Anaesth Soc J, 1983, 30: p. 248.

111. Bailey, P.L., et al., Sufentanil produces shorter lasting respiratory depression and longer lasting analgesia than equipotent doses of fentanyl in human volunteers. Anesthesiology, 1986, 65: p. A493.

112. Bailey, P.L., et al., Differences in magnitude and duration of opioid induced respiratory depression and analgesia with fentanyl and sufentanil. Anesth Analg, 1990, 70: pp. 8-15.

113. Spiegel, K. and G.W. Pasternack, Meptazinol: a novel mu-1 selective opioid analgesic. J Pharmacol Expt Ther, 1984, 228: pp. 414-419.

114. Jaffe, J.H. and W.R. Martin, Opioid analgesics and antagonists, in The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, A.F. Gilman, et al., Editors, 1990, Pergamon Press: New York. pp. 485-531.

115. Bovill, J.G., et al., Electroencephalographic effects of sufentanil anaesthesia in man. Br J Anaesth, 1982, 54: pp. 45-52.

116. Bowdle, T.A. and R.J. Ward, Induction of anesthesia with small doses of sufentanil or fentanyl: dose versus EEG response, speed of onset, and thiopental requirement. Anesthesiology, 1989, 70: pp. 26-30.

117. Hilgenberg, J.C., Intraoperative awareness during high dose fentanyl-oxygen anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 1981, 54: pp. 341-343.

118. Mummaneni, N., T.L.K. Tao, and A. Montoya, Awareness and recall during high-dose fentanyl-oxygen anesthesia. Anesth Analg, 1980, 59: pp. 948-949.

119. Freye, E. and E. Hartung, Kardiovaskuläre und zentralnervöse Effekte unter Fentanyl versus Sufentanil bei der Intubation herzchirurgischer Patienten. Anästhesie Aktuell, 1993, 9: pp. 3-14.

120. Brian, S.E. and A.B. Seifen, Tonic-clonic activity after sufentanil. Anesth Analg, 1987, 66: p. 481.

121. Freye, E., E. Hartung, and R. Buhl, Die Lungencompliance wird durch die rasche Injektion von Alfentanil beeinträchtigt. Anaesthesist, 1986, 35: pp. 543-546.

122. Smith, N.T., et al., EEGs during high-dose fentanyl, sufentanil-, or morphine-oxygen anesthesia. Anesth Analg, 1984, 63: p. 386.

123. Katz, R.I., et al., Two instances of seizure-like activity in the same patient associated with two different narcotics. Anesth Analg, 1988, 67: p. 289.

124. Young, W.L., et al., The effect of sufentanil on cerebral hemodyamics during carotid endarterectomy. Anesthesiology, 1988, 69: p. A591.

125. Keykhah, M.M., D.S. Smith, and C. Carlson, Influence of sufentanil on cerebral metabolism and circulation in the rat. Anesthesiology, 1985, 63: pp. 274-277.

126. Werner, C., Der Einfluß von Sufentanil auf die regionale und globale Hirndurchblutung und den zerebralen Sauerstoffverbrauch beim Hund. Anaesthesist, 1992, 41: pp. 34-38.

127. Milde, L.N., J.H. Milde, and W.J. Gallagiter, Effects of sufentanil on cerebral circulation and metabolism in dogs. Anesth Analg, 1990, 70 (2): pp. 138-146.

128. Weinstabl, C., et al., Effects of sufentanil on intracranial pressure in neurological patients. Anaesthesia, 1991, 46: pp. 837-840.

129. Sperry, R.J., et al., Fentanyl and sufentanil increase intracranial pressure in head trauma patients. Anesthesiology, 1992, 77 (3): pp. 416-420.

130. Stephan, H., et al., Einfluß von Sufentanil auf Hirndurchblutung, Hirnstoffwechsel und die C02-Reaktivität der menschlichen Hirngefäße. Anaesthesist, 1991, 40: pp. 153-160.

131. Freye, E., et al., Slow EEG-power spectra correlate with hemodynamic changes during laryngoscopy and intubation following induction with fentanyl and sufentanil. Acta Anaesth Belg, 1999, 50: pp. 71-76.

132. Hull, R.I., R.I. Murphy, and C.C. Hug, The enflurane sparing effect of sufentanil in dogs. Anesthesiology, 1987, 67: pp. 518-525.

133. Monk, J.P., R. Beresford, and A. Ward, Sufentanil: A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use. Drugs, 1988, 36: pp. 286-313.

134. Gravlee, G.P., F.M. Ramsey, and R.C. Roy, Rapid administration of a narcotic and a neuromuscular blocker: a hemodynamic comparison of fentanyl, sufentanil, pancuronium, and vecuronium. Anesth Analg, 1988, 67: pp. 39-47.

135. Brizgys, R.V., R. Morales, and B. Owens, Effects of thiopental requirements and hemodynamic response during induction and intubation. Anesthesiology, 1985, 63: p. A377.

136. Lappas, D.G., et al., Filling pressures of the heart and pulmonary circulation of the patient with coronary artery disease after large doses of morphine. Anesthesiology, 1975, 42: p. 153.

137. Lappas, D.G., I. Placios, and C. Athanasiadis, Sufentanil dosage and myocardial blood flow and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology, 1985, 63: p. A58.

138. Becker, C.E., et al., A quick guide to common drug interaction, in Patient Care, J. Bigelow, Editor, 1974, Miller & Fink: Philadelphia. pp. 1-32.

139. Sifton, D.W., Drug Interaction and Side Effects Index™. 42 ed. Physicians Desk Reference (PDR), ed. M. Trelewicz. 1988, Medical Economics Company Inc.: Oradell, N.Y. 1-787.

140. Coté, D., R. Martin, and J.P. Tétrault, Haemodynamic interactions of muscle relaxants and sufentanil in coronary artery surgery. Can J Anaesth, 1991, 38(3): pp. 324-329.

141. Maurer, P.M. and R.R. Bartkowski, Drug interactions of clinical significance with opioid analgesics. Druf Safety, 1993, 8: pp. 30-48.

Bovill, J.G., et al., Electroencephalographic effects of sufentanil anaesthesia in man. Br J Anaesth, 1982, 54: pp. 45-52.

Helmers, J.H., L. Van Leuwen, and W. Zuurmond, Sufentanil-Dosierungsstudie bei allgemeinen chrirurgischen Eingriffen. Anaesthesist, 1989, 38: pp. 397-400. Gerwig, W.H., C.W. Thompson, and P. Blades, Pain control following upper abdominal operations. Arch Surg, 1951, 62: pp. 678-682.

Morris, T. and J. Tracey, Lignocaine: its effect on wound healing. Br J Surg, 1977, 64: pp. 902-903.

Dundee, J.W., Problems associated with strong analgesics, in Pain. New Perspectives in Measurement and Management, A.W. Harcus, R. Smith, and B. Whittle, Editors, 1977, Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh, London, New York. pp. 57-62. Ferrari, H.A., R.L. Fuson, and S.J. Dent, The relationship of the anaesthetic agent to postoperative analgesic requirements. South Med J, 1969, 62: pp. 1201-1203. Clark, N.J., et al., Comparison of sufentanil-N2O andfentanyl-N2O in patients without cardiac disease undergoing general surgery. Anesthesiology, 1987, 66: pp. 130-135. Suwatakul, K., et al., Analysis of narcotic analgesic usage in the treatment of postoperative pain. JAMA, 1983, 250: pp. 926-929.

Koo, P.J., Postoperative pain management with a patient-controlled transdermal delivery system for fentanyl. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 2005, 62: pp. 1171-1176. Striebel, H., J. Hackenberger, and A. Wesel, Beurteilung der postoperativen Schmerzintensität. Selbst- versus Fremdbeurteilung. Schmerz, 1992, 6: pp. 199-203. Ripamonti, C., Pain experienced by patients hospitalized at the National Cancer Institute of Milan: Research project "towards a pain-free hospital". Tumori, 2000, 86: pp. 412-418.

Strohbücker, B., H. Mayer, and G. Evers, Schmerzprävalenz an den Unikliniken Köln: Vorkommen und Intensität von Schmerzen bei stationären Patienten. Unveröffentlichte Masterarbeit, 2001, Institut für Pflegewissenschaft, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität Witten/Herdecke.

Marks, R.M. and E.J. Sachar, Undertreatment of medical inpatients with narcotic analgesics. Ann Int Med, 1973, 78: pp. 173-181.

Angell, M., The quality of mercy. New Engl J Med, 1982, 306: pp. 98-99. Porter, J. and H. Hick, Addiction rare in patients treated with narcotics. New Engl J Med, 1980, 302: pp. 123-126.

Taub, A., Opioid analgesics in the treatment of chronic intractable pain of nonneoplastic origin, in Narcotic Analgesics in Anesthesiology, L.M. Kitahata and J.G. Collins, Editors, 1982, Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore. pp. 199-208. Portenoy, R.K. and K.M. Foley, Chronic use of opioid analgesics in non-malignant pain: Report of 38 cases. Pain, 1986, 25: pp. 171-186.

Eide, W.K., Wind-up and the NMDA receptor complex from a clinical perspective. Eur J Pain, 2000, 4: pp. 5-17.

Barsoum, M.W., Comparison of the efficacy and tolarability of tramadol, pethidine and nalbuphine in childrenwith postoperative pain. Clin Drug Invest, 1995, 9: pp. 183-190. Quiding, H., et al., Infants and young children metabolise codeine to morphine. A study after single and repeated rectal administration. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1992, 33: pp. 45-49.

Moore, R.A. and H.J. McQuay, Single-patient data meta-analysis of 3453 postoperative patients: oral tramadol versus placebo, codeine and combination analgesics. Pain, 1997, 69: pp. 287-294.

163. Lewis, J.W., Buprenorphine. Drug Alcohol Depend, 1985, 14: pp. 363-372.

164. Heel, R.C., et al., Buprenorphine: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs, 1979, 17: pp. 81-100.

165. Lewis, J.W. Structure-activity relationships of opioids - a current perspective. in VIII. International Symposium on Medicinal Chemistry. 1985, Stockholm: Swedish Pharmaceutical Press.

166. Krizanits-Weine, F., et al., Präemptive Analgesie mit retardiertem Dihydrocodein bei Patienten mit elektiven Kniearthroskopien. Schmerz, 1996, 10: p. S54.

167. Steffen, P., et al., Nichtinvasive perioperative Analgesie nach Allgemeinanästhesien. Kombination von Dihydrocodein ret. mit den Nichtopioidanalgetika Diclofenac und Metamizol. Schmerz, 1996, 10: p. S51.

168. Lotsch, J., et al., Fatal respiratory depression after multiple intravenous morphine injections. Clin Pharmacokinet, 2006, 45: pp. 1051-1060.

169. Wen-Ying, C., et al., Human opioid receptor A118G polymorphism affects intravenous patient-controlled analgesia morphine consumption after total abdominal hysterectomy. Anesthesiology, 2006, 105: pp. 334-337.

170. Good, P., et al., Prospective audit of short-term concurrent ketamine, opioid and antiinflammatory ('triple-agent') therapy for episodes of acute and chronic pain. Intern Med J, 2005, 35: pp. 39-44.

171. Saarne, A., Clinical evaluation of a new analgesic piritramide. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 1969, 13: pp. 11-19.

172. Schmidt, W.K., et al., Nalbuphine. Drug Alcohol Depend, 1985, 14: pp. 339-362.

173. Wood, P.L., Kappa agonists analgesics: evidence for /U,2 and delta opioid receptor antagonism. Drug Dev Res, 1984, 4: pp. 429-435.

174. Wermeling, D.P., et al., Patient-controlled analgesia using butorphanol for postoperative pain control: an open label study, in Butorphanol Tartrate: Research Advances in Multiple Clinical Settings, C.E. Rosow, Editor, 1986, S. Karger: Basel, Paris, London, New York, Singapore, Sydney. pp. 31-39.

175. Freye, E., L. Azevedo, and E. Hartung, Reversal of fentanyl-related respiratory depression with nalbuphine; effects on the CO2-response curve of man. Acta Anaesth Belg, 1985, 36: pp. 365-374.

176. Magruder, M.R., R.D. DeLaney, and C.A. DiFazio, Reversal of narcotic-induced respiratory depression with nalbuphine hydrochloride. Anesthesiol Rev, 1982, 9: pp. 34-37.

177. McCammon, R.L., R.K. Stoelting, and J.A. Madura, Effects of butorphanol, nalbuphine, and fentanyl on intrabiliary tract dynamics. Anesth Analg, 1984, 63: pp. 139-142.

178. Romagnoli, A. and A.S. Keats, Ceiling effect for respiratory depression by nalbuphine. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1980, 27: pp. 478-485.

179. Herz, A., Opiat-Partialantagonisten, in Pentazocin im Spiegel der Erfahrungen, S. Kubicki and G.A. Neuhaus, Editors, 1981, Springer: Berlin-Heidelberg-New York. pp. 19-21.

180. Gal, T.J., C.A. Di Fazo, and J. Moscicki, Analgesic and respiratory depressant activity of nalbuphine: a comparison with morphine. Anesthesiology, 1982, 57: pp. 367-374.

181. Abboud, T.K., et al., Transnasal butorphanol: a new method for pain relief in postcesarean section pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 1991, 35: pp. 14-18.

182. Wetchler, B.V., C.D. Alexander, and M.A. Uhll, Transnasal butorphanol tartrate for pain control following ambulatory surgery. Curr Ther Res, 1992, 52 (4): pp. 571-580.

Joyce III, T.H., et al., Efficacy of transnasal butorphanol tartrate in postepisiotomy pain: a model to assess analgesia. Clin Therap, 1993, 15 (1): pp. 160-167. Shyu, W.C., et al., Multiple-dose phase I study of transnasal butorphanol. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1993, 54: pp. 34-41.

Couch, J., et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Stadol® NS™ (transnasal butorphanol) in the treatment of acute migraine in outpatients. in 7th World Congress on Pain. 1993, Paris: ISAP Publications.

Diamond, S., et al., Transnasal butorphanol in the treatment of migraine headache pain. Headache Quat Curr Treat Res, 1992, 3 (2): pp. 164-171. Morrison, C.E., et al., Pethidine compared with meptazinol during labour; a prospective randomised double-blind study in 1100 patients. Anaesthesia, 1987, 42: pp. 7-14.

Jordan, C., A comparison of the respiratory effects of meptazinol, pentazocine and morphine. Br J Anaesth, 1979, 51: pp. 497-501.

Keeri-Szanto, M., Drugs or drums: what relieves postoperative pain? Pain, 1979, 6: pp. 217-230.

Eagen, K.J. and L. Ready, Patient satisfaction with intravenous PCA or epidural morphine. Can J Anaesth, 1994, 41: pp. 6-11.

White, P.F., Mishaps with patient-controlled analgesia. Anesthesiology, 1987, 66: pp. 81-83.

Thomas, D.W. and H. Owen, Patient-controlled analgesia - the need for caution. Anaesthesia, 1988, 43: pp. 770-772.

Parker, R.K., B. Holtmann, and P.F. White, Patient-controlled analgesia: does a concurrent opioid infusion improve pain mangement after surgery? JAMA, 1991, 266 (14): pp. 1947-1952.

Lehmann, K.A., Neue Möglichkeiten zur Behandlung akuter Schmerzen. Drug Res Arzneimittelforsch, 1984, 34: pp. 1108-1114.

Ginsberg, B., et al., The influence of lockout intervals and drug selection on patient-controlled analgesia following gynecological surgery. Pain, 1995, 62: pp. 95-100. Butscher, K., J.Y. Mazoit, and K. Samii, Can immediate opioid requirements in the post-anaesthesia care unit be used to determine analgesic requirements on the ward? Can J Anaesth, 1995, 42: pp. 461-466.

Krimmer, H., et al., Die kombinierte infusionsanalgesie - Ein alternatives Konzept zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie. Chirurg, 1986, 57: pp. 327-329. Viscusi, E.R., et al., Non-invasive, patient-controlled, fentanyl HCl analgesia: comparison of safety and efficacy to intravenous morphine pump for the treatment of postoperative pain after major surgery: a randomized, multi-center trial. Anesth Analg, 2002, 94: p. S. 224.

Friedman, J.D. and F.A. Dello Buono, Opioid antagonists in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation and pruritus. Am Pharmacother, 2003, 35: pp. 85-91. Kurz, A. and D.I. Sessler, Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction; pathophysiology and potential new therapies. Drugs, 2003, 63: pp. 649-671.

Liu, S.S., et al., ADL 8-2698, a trans-3, 4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl) piperidine, prevents gastrointestinal effects of intravenous morphine without affecting analgesia. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2001, 69: pp. 66-71.

Holte, K. and H. Kehlet, Prevention of postoperativ ileus. Minerva Anesthesiol, 2002, 68: pp. 152-156.

2G3. Taguchi, A., et al., Selective postoperative inhiibition of gastrointestinal opioid receptors. N Engl J Med, 2GG1, 34S: pp. 935-94G.

2G4. Schmidt, W.K., Alvimopan* (ADL 8-2698) is a novel peripheral opioid antagonist. Am J Surg, 2GG1, lS2: pp. 27S-38S.

2G5. Yuan, C.S. and J.F. Foss, Methylnaltrexone: investigation of clinical applications. Drug Dev Res, 2GGG, SO: pp. 133-141.

2G6. Yuan, C.S., et al., The safety and efficacy of oral methylnaltrexone in preventing morphine-induced delay in oral cecal transit time. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1997, 6l: pp. 1-9.

2G7. Yuan, C.S. and J.F. Foss, Oral methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation. JAMA, 2GGG, 2S4: pp. 1383-1384.

2G8. Yuan, C.S., et al., Methylnaltrexone prevents morphine-induced delay on oral-cecal transit time without affecting analgesia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 1996, S9: pp. 469-475.

2G9. Stevens, C.W., et al., Biochemical characterization and regional quantification of mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites in rat spinal cord. Brain Res, 1991, SSO: pp. 77-85.

21G. Rawal, N., Klinischer Einsatz der rückenmarknahen Opioidanalgesie, Teil 1. Der Schmerz, 1996, lO: pp. 176-189.

211. Börner, U., et al., Epidurale Opiatanalgesie - Gewebe und Liquorverträglichkeit der Opiate. Anaesthesist, 198G, 29: pp. 57G-571.

212. Bürkle, H., S. Dunbar, and H. van Aken, Remifentanil: a novel, short-acting, ¿u-opioid. Anesth Analg, 1996, S3: pp. 646-651.

213. Rawal, N. and B. Tandon, Epidural and intrathecal morphine in intensive care units. Intensive Care Med, 1985, ll: pp. 129-135.

214. De Castro, J. and L. Lecron, Peridurale Opiatanalgesie: Verschiedene Opiate -Komplikationen und Nebenwirkungen, in Peridurale Opiatanalgesie, M. Zenz, Editor, 1981, G. Fischer: Stuttgart, New York. pp. 1G3-1G7.

215. Moore, R.A., et al., Dural permeability to narcotics: in vitro determination and application to extradural administration. Br J Anaesth, 1982, S4: pp. 1117-1127.

216. Leicht, C.H., et al., Evaluation and comparison of epidural sufentanil citrate and morphine sulfate for analgesia after cesarean section. Anesthesiology, 1986, 6S: pp. A 365.

217. Camporesi, E.M., C.H. Nielsen, and P.R. Bromage, Ventilatory CO2 sensitivity after intravenous and epidural morphine in volunteers. Anesth Analg, 1983, 62: p. 633.

218. Bromage, P.R., et al., Rostral spread of epidural morphine. Anesthesiology, 1982, S6: pp. 431-436.

219. Johnson, A., et al., Influence of intrathecal morphine and naloxone intervention on postoperative ventilatory regulation in elderly patients. Acta Anaethesiol Scand, 1992, 36 (5): pp. 436-444.

22G. McCaughey, W. and I.L. Graham, The respiratory depression of epidural morphine: time course and effect of posture. Anaesthesia, 1982, 37: pp. 99G-994.

221. Jaffe, J.H. and W.R. Martin, Opioid analgesics and antagonists, in The pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, A.G. Gilman, et al., Editors, 1993, McGraw Hill: New York. pp. 485-531.

222. Glynn, C.I., L.E. Mather, and M.E. Cousins, Spinal narcotics and respiratory depression. Lancet, 1979, 2: p. 356.

223. Cohen, S.E., S. Tan, and P.F. White, Sufentanil analgesia following cesarean section: epidural versus intravenous administration. Anesthesiology, 1988, 68: pp. 129-134.

224. Davies, G.K., C.L. Tolhurst-Cleaver, and T.L. James, Respiratory depression after intrathecal opiates. Anaesthesia, 1980, 35: p. 1080.

225. Gourlay, G.K., et al., Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in lumbar and cervical CSF following lumbar epidural and intravenous administration. Pain, 1989, 38: pp. 253-259.

226. Chalmer, P.C., C.M. Lang, and B.B. Greenhouse, The use of nalbuphine in association with epidural narcotics. Anesthesiol Rev, 1988, 15(2): pp. 21-27.

227. Cheng, E.Y. and J. May, Nalbuphine reversal of repiratory depression after epidural sufentanil. Crit Care Med, 1989, 17: pp. 378-379.

228. Bromage, P.R., Camporesi, E.M., and P.A.C. Durant, Nonrespiratory side effects of epidural morphine. Anesth Analg, 1982, 61: p. 490.

229. Rawal, N., K. Möllefors, and K. Axelsson, Naloxone reversal of urinary retention after epidural morphine. Lancet, 1981, 2: p. 1411.

230. Cousins, M.J. and L.E. Mather, Intrathecal and epidural administration of opioids. Anesthesiology, 1984, 61: pp. 276-310.

231. Rawal, N. and M. Wattwil, Respiratory depression after epidural morphine - an experimental and clinical study. Anesth Analg, 1982, 63: p. 8.

232. Eisenach, J.C., Epidural and spinal narcotics, in ASA Refresher Courses in Anesthesiology, P.G. Barash, Editor, 1992, Lippincott: Philadelphia. pp. 1-4.

233. Bailey, D.R. and B.E. Smith, Continuous epidural infuson of fentanyl for postoperative analgesia. Anesthesiology, 1980, 42: p. 538.

234. Gjessing, J. and P.J. Tomlin, Postoperative pain control with intrathecal morphine. Anaesthesia, 1981, 36: p. 268.

235. Kitahata, L.M. and J.G. Collins, Spinal action of narcotic analgesics. Anesthesiology, 1981, 54: p. 153.

236. Rutter, D.V., D.G. Skewes, and M. Morgan, Extradural opioids for postoperative analgesia: a double blind comparison of pethidine, fentanyl and morphine. Br J Anaesth, 1981, 53: p. 915.

237. Weightman, W.M., Respiratory arrest during epidural infusion of bupivacaine and fentanyl. Anaesth Int Care, 1991, 19: pp. 282-284.

238. Waldvogel, H.H., and M. Fasano, Extradural administration oflofentanylfor balanced postoperative pain. Anaesthesist, 1983, 32: pp. 256-257.

239. Herz, A. and H.J. Teschemacher, Activities and site of antinociceptive action of morphine-like analgesics. Adv Drug Res, 1971, 6: pp. 79-119.

240. Howell, S.B., Clinical application of a novel sustained-release injectable drug delivery system DepoFoam technology. Cancer J, 2001, 7: pp. 219-227.

241. Viscusi, E.R., et al., EREM Study Group: fourty-eight hours of postoperativ pain relief following total hip arthroplasty with a novel, extend-release epidural morphine formulation. Anesthesiology, 2005, 102: pp. 1014-1022.

242. Carvallo, B., E. Riley, and G. Manvelian, Phase II study of long-acting encapsulated epidural morphine for postoperative pain after cesarean section. Reg Anesth Pain Med, 2004, 29: p. A37.

243. Gambling, D.R., et al., A compararive study of patient controllled epidural analgsia (PCEA) and continuous infusion epeidural analgesia (CIEA) during labour. Can J Anaesth, 1988, 35: pp. 249-254.

244. Velickovic, I. and G. Leicht, Patient-controlled epidural analgesia for labor and delivery in parturient with chronic inflammatory demyelating polyneuropathy. Reg Anesth and Pain Med, 2001, 27: pp. 217-219.

245. Zenz, M., S. Piepenbrock, and M. Tryba, Epidural opiates: long-term experiences in cancer pain. Klin Wochenschr, 1985, 63: pp. 225-229.

246. Durant, P.A.C. and T.L. Yaksh, Epidural injections of bupivacaine, morphine, fentanyl, lofentanil, and DADL in chronically implanted rats: a pharmacologic and pathologic study. Anesthesiology, 1986, 64: pp. 43-53.

247. Camann, W.R., et al., A comparison of intrathecal, epidural, and intravenous sufentanil for labor analgesia. Anesthesiology, 1992, 77: pp. 884-892.

248. McQuay, H.J., et al., Intrathecal opioids, potency, and lipophilicity. Pain, 1989, 36: pp. 111-115.

249. Hansdottir, V., et al., The CSF and plasma pharmacokinetics of sufentanil after intrathecal administration. Anesthesiology, 1991, 74: pp. 264-269.

250. D'Angelo, R., et al., Intrathecal sufentanil compared to epidural bupivacaine for labor analgesia. Anesthesiology, 1994, SO: pp. 1209-1215.

251. Jones, R.D.M. and J.G. Jones, Intrathecal morphine: naloxone reverses respiratory depression but not analgesia. Br Med J, 1980, 2Sl: pp. 645-646.

252. Meignier, M., et al., Continuous intrathecal opioids and bupivcaine for the management of intractable cancer pain in children. Anesth Analg, 1993, 76: p. S259.

253. Brown, D.V. and R.J. McCarthy, Epidural and spinal opioids. Curr Opinion Anaesth, 1995, S: pp. 337-341.

254. Mok, M.S., et al. Analgesic effect of intrathecal stadol, nubain, meperidine, morphine and fentanyl, a comparative study. in VIII. World Congress of Anaesthesiologists. 1984, Manila/Philippines.

255. Kalia, P.K., et al., Epidural pentazocine for postoperative pain relief. Anesth Analg, 1983, 62: p. 949.

256. Malinovsky, J.M., et al., Ketamine and midazolam neurotoxicity in the rabbit. Anesthesiology, 1991, 75: pp. 91-97.

257. Wilcox, G.L., et al., Mutual potentiation of antinociceptive effects of morphine and clonidine on motor and sensory responses in rat spinal cord. Brain Res, 1987, 405: pp. 84-93.

258. Ossipov, M.H., L.J. Suarez, and T.C. Spaulding, Antinociceptive interactions between alpha2-adrenergic and opiate agonists at the spinal level of rodents. Anesth Analg, 1989, 6S: pp. 194-200.

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment