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Scar Solution Book By Sean Lowry

The Scar Solution book is a result of personal testing, scientific research, trial and error which the author Sean Lowry experienced in months. She is a formal scar sufferer and medical researcher. With this program, she helped thousands of scar sufferers remove their ugly scars naturally. Sean Lowry also discusses practical information, including the what, how and why of the exact treatments for all the types of scars. You will have little doubt about whats required and how to start, the step-by step methodology shows you exactly what you are supposed to do, when to do it, and why do it for quick scar removal. Based on the customer reviews of The Scar Solution, sufferers have been satisfied with the results of the miracle cure and most of them state that they will be recommending it to their family and friends. Tremendous results include breaking up the scar tissue so lessening their unsightly appearance on the skin; reversing hyperpigmentation and discoloration especially those caused by severe acne; and preventing the appearance of new scars, among others. More here...

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal Summary


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Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in brain injury and repair

MMPs appear to play a key role in the patho-genesis of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, contributing to blood-brain barrier (BBB) eruption, brain edema, immune cell infiltration, myelin degradation and glial-scar formation. Increased activity of MMPs has recently been reported in experimental animal models of demyelinating diseases as well as in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Similarly, increased levels of MMPs, and in particular MMP-2 and -9, have been detected in experimental cerebral ischemia as well as in stroke patients. Modulation of MMP TIMP profiles seems to be associated also with bacterial and viral meningoencephalitis. Additionally, though results are still controversial, MMPs seem to be involved in the deposition of p-amyloid protein in Alzheimer's diseases (AD).

Necrosis Characterization

Through necrosis has occurred, the cellular debris is very slowly cleared over the next weeks or months with the formation of glial scars. Necrosis can continue to be seen in the brain even days after an insult and may be caused by secondary events, such as delayed reperfusion, loss of supporting astrocytes, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, inflammation, and other factors. However, progression of the lesion probably involves apoptosis.

Therapeutic Targets In Ms

MS is characterized by the presence, within the CNS, of inflammatory infiltrates containing a few auto-reactive T-cells and a multitude of pathogenetic nonspecific lymphocytes determining the typical patchy CNS demyelination, ranging from demyelination with preservation of oligodendrocytes to complete oligodendrocyte and axonal loss and severe glial scarring.2,3 CNS antigen-specific T-cells are believed to provide the organ specificity of the pathogenic process and to regulate the recirculation within the CNS of non-antigen-specific lymphomononuclear

Gene Therapy Of Remyelination Future Applications

In the chronic form of MS, oligodendrocytes seem to represent the primary target of the pathological process, and are almost completely lost in demyelinating areas, so that no spontaneous remyelination takes place. In contrast, in the acute relapsing-remitting form of the disease, the persistence of oligodendrocytes in demyelinating areas in which remyelination takes place suggests that the primary targets in this form are myelin components such as MBP, PLP, MOG or others. This latter disease form, which accounts for more than 80 of MS patients, might therefore benefit from therapies aimed at stimulating oligodendrocytes to remyelinate. For a long time it was believed that repair of myelin sheaths does not occur in MS. However, more recently, a detailed analysis of MS pathology provided evidence for extensive remyeli-nation.29,30 Remyelination is prominent during the early stage of disease evolution and apparently depends upon the availability of oligodendrocytes...

Precursor Cells In The Adult Cns Are Responsible For Regeneration Of Oligodendrocytes And Myelin

The embryonic, polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). Such SVZ PSA-NCAM+ cells also react to demyelination by proliferating and differentiating, generating astrocytes and remyelinating oligodendrocytes.20 Stem cells of the spinal ependymal layer react to traumatic injury by increased proliferation and migration into the lesion and participate in formation of the glial scar.7 It is not known whether these cells participate in myelin regeneration.

Hepatic Inflammation and Fibrosis

Virtually any insult to the liver can cause hepatocyte destruction and parenchymal inflammation. If the insult is minor and occurs only once, local restoration mechanisms will suffice to repair the damage. If, however, the insult is major or persistent, an inflammatory response will be generated. This inflammation is the result of cytokine-mediated activation of sinusoidal cells, their subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their expression of adhesion molecules for the recruitment of circulating leucocytes. Once the damage is under control and the inciting insult has been eliminated, the inflammatory process will end and local mechanisms will proceed until the damage is repaired. Usually little scar tissue will be detectable, because of extracellular matrix remodelling. During conditions of chronic liver injury, however, the repair process does lead to scar tissue formation, which is deposited within the liver until impairment of liver function occurs. This process is...

Subconjunctival Drug Delivery Systems

In practice remarkable prolongation of drug activity in the eye has been observed after subconjunctival administration of inserts and liposome suspensions (Niesman, 1992). Two main applications of the sustained release systems are the administration of antimetabolites (like 5-fluorouracil) to prevent scarring after glaucoma filtering surgery and the delivery of antimicrobial agents to provide prolonged high drug levels in severely infected cornea (Niesman, 1992).

Treatment of Hepatitis CAssociated Glomerular Disease

Summary Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis (liver scarring), and liver failure however, it is also associated with a wide range of extrahepatic features. This article reviews the treatment of glomerular disease (kidney disease) associated with HCV infection. Renal manifestations include cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and membranous nephropathy. The authors caution that treatment of HCV with alpha interferon is only moderately effective and suffers from a high relapse rate. More recently, combination therapy with ribavirin has led to improved suppression of HCV RNA levels. Rapidly progressive renal disease or severe cryoglobulinemic vasculitis may respond to immunosuppression with steroid, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis in the acute phase. After 2 to 4 months of immunosuppression, antiviral therapy (with alpha interferon and ribavirin) should be tried. Promising new therapies on the horizon include agents...

Renal Pathology and the Proximal Tubular Cell for Therapeutic Intervention

Targeting of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drugs to the proximal tubular cell may prevent tubulointerstitial inflammation and scarring secondary to systemic and glomerular infection and proteinuria. Furthermore, tubular drug delivery may be beneficial during shock, renal transplantation, ureter obstruction, diabetes, proteinuria, renal carcinoma and some tubular defect diseases such as Fanconi and Bartter's syndrome.

Implications for New Integrated Treatments

As for stem cell injections, these are random and may distort the described architecture of the heart. Furthermore, assuming that cells are injected into the area of infarction and scar, they will be exposed to a hostile collagenous environment devoid of vascularization. In fact, up to 75 of the injected cells, no matter what their origin, die within 48 h of injection. It should therefore be a prominent goal

Targeting the MAPK Pathway in Other Diseases

In a mouse animal model of myocardial injury, inhibition of both p38 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) increased mitosis in cardiomyocytes, reduced scarring and wall thinning and improved cardiac function (Engel et al. 2006). While the p38 inhibitor alone did not improve cardiac function, it did increase cardiomyocyte mitosis. These findings raise the possibility that the p38 MAPK pathway may be targeted, potentially in combination with other treatments, to promote recovery following a heart attack. Consistent with these preclinical obser

Transplanted BMSCs Are Integrated into Neural Circuits

The transplanted GFP-expressing BMSCs migrated extensively towards the lesion and were found in the rostral and partially in the caudal regions of the injury. In the gray matter, most of the GFP-positive cells were large and had an oval shape. Some of them were also positive for FR (Fig. 2), but none of them expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). On the other hand, the GFP-positive cells in the white matter and glial scar were rather small, and morphologically simulated astro-cytes. Most of them were also positive for GFAP, but negative for FR. Many of the GFP-positive cells in the gray mater were doubly positive for neuronal markers such as NeuN and MAP2. More interestingly, they were also positive for FR that was exogenously injected into the dorsal funiculus at 10 mm rostral to the center of injury. The findings strongly suggested that a certain subpopulation of BMSCs had not only acquired a neuronal phenotype but had also built synaptic connections with the FR-injected...

What Is Herpes Zoster

VZV-specific CMI may also fall below a threshold necessary to prevent clinical virus reactivation as a result of disease (e.g. lymphoma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)), therapeutic immune suppression (e.g. after organ transplant, for autoimmune disease), or as a result of treatment of malignancy (e.g. radiotherapy, chemotherapy). However, younger individuals may develop HZ with no coexisting disease process. Prodromal pain usually lasting three to five days is followed by a typical unilateral rash in a dermatomal distribution. The rash progresses from ery-thematous patches to vesicles, pustules, and scabs. Healing occurs typically within three weeks, often leaving hyper- or hypopigmented scars and sensory changes. HZ cannot be contracted from contact with varicella, but varicella may occur after contact with HZ although the force of infection is low ( 0.1 percent)3 compared with that for contracting varicella from another person with varicella (...

Pathophysiology Of

Both peripheral and central processes contribute to PHN and their contributions vary widely between patients from minimal deafferentation and severe allodynia to severe sensory loss but no allodynia.24 Patients with prominent allodynia often have minimal sensory loss and gain pain relief following local application of some analgesic agents. This suggests that preserved, and possibly sensitized, primary afferent nociceptors and their chronically sensitized central connections are responsible for initiating and maintaining pain and allodynia in these patients.25 Pathological findings in PHN include degeneration of affected primary afferent neuronal cell bodies and axons, atrophy of the spinal cord dorsal horn, scarring of the dorsal root ganglion, and loss of epidermal

Common Presentations of Back Pain

Once serious causes of back pain are ruled out, the next step is to determine if the patient has musculoskeletal back pain or nerve root pain. Back pain that is musculoskeletal or mechanical in nature varies with activity and presents predominantly in the lumbosacral area, buttocks, and thighs in a patient who is otherwise well or in stable health. Nerve root pain can arise from a prolapsed disk, spinal stenosis, or surgical scarring. The pain generally radiates to the foot or toes and may be associated with numbness or tingling and signs of nerve root irritation such as positive straight leg raising (Table 26.3).

Chemokines and Their Receptors in Fibrosis

Tissue fibrosis, which results in the destruction of normal organ function, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Current strategies for treating fibrosis have been unsuccessful, largely because of the difficulty in distinguishing whether inflammatory or fibrogenic events sustain the progression of the disease. The causes of fibrosis are diverse regardless of the tissue involved, and the common features include the sequential recruitment of inflammatory cells, overproliferation of matrix-producing cells, and the overproduction of extracellular matrix. An excessive wound-healing response presumably represents disruption in this sequence thereby leading to a disturbance in the balance between tissue remodeling, matrix degradation, and permanent scarring. The mechanisms involved in pulmonary fibrosis also represent three sequential events characterized by an initial insult, inflammation, and tissue repair. Central to the progression of these events is the balance between a T...

Fibrosis Is It Linked to Inflammation

The primary causes of fibrosis are diverse and include toxic vapors, inorganic dusts, drugs, and radiation (4,6). Physical or chemical injuries and immunologic disorders can lead to cutaneous fibrosis such as keloids, hypertrophic scars, and scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) (4). Alcohol and viral infections are major causes of hepatic fibrosis, and glomerulonephritis, diabetic mellitus, and hypertension are major causes of renal scarring (4,6). Diffuse cardiac fibrosis is one of the major complications of hypertension usually associated with progressive heart failure (7). A number of drugs such as bleomycin, cisplatin, cyclosporine, and gentamicin can also induce fibrosis of the lung and kidney and have been instrumental in inducing fibrosis in certain experimental models (7,8). Regardless of the cause of tissue injury, an inflammatory response immediately ensues that is followed by a complex, highly regulated, dynamic wound-healing process. However, certain types of injury can lead...

Potential of antisense oligonucleotides as drugs

In animal studies, targeting with DNA modified with methylphos-phonate groups to a specific gene - c-myc - has been found to reduce lymphoma growth (Wickstrom, 1997). In this case, the antisense was injected through the tail vein. Continuous application to mice with a micro-osmotic pump also reduced the likelihood of developing tumours. Restenosis in pigs has also been inhibited with anti c-myc phosphoro-thioated antisense (Shi et al., 1994). Wound healing and, in particular, the effects of scarring are influenced by the application to mice of antisense molecules against the growth factor TGF- 1. Similarly, c-H-ras-transformed cells, when treated with antisense and injected into mice, led to a great reduction in tumorigenesis (Gray et al., 1993). In vivo tumour growth in mice has also been suppressed using antisense against the R1a gene, which encodes one of the regulatory units of protein kinase type A (Yoon et al., 1997). Targeting the basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptor...

Other visceral cancers

The problems that occur in cancer pain management are those that are present when the cancer has responded to treatment, but the treatment itself has proved to be pain-producing. Radiation enteritis colitis, postsurgical phantoms, neuroma formation, neuropathies, altered biomechanics, adhesions strictures, and other effects of scarring can all act as generators or modulators of pain that could also potentially represent tumor recurrence.

Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome

With both PMPS and PTPS, the area of the scar can also be highly sensitive and painful. Some patients describe this pain as itchiness (Wallace & Wallace, 1997). There are some effective treatments for these two conditions, and the treatment options can be found in Chapter 15.

Animal Models for Epilepsies 2221 Focal Epilepsy Models

Kindling, low-intensity electrical stimulation of certain regions of the limbic system, such as the amygdala, with implanted electrodes normally produces no seizure response. If a brief period of stimulation is repeated daily for several days, the response gradually increases until very low levels of stimulation will evoke a full seizure and eventually seizures begin to occur spontaneously (Goddard et al. 1969). Once produced, the kindled state persists indefinitely. Kindling is still widely accepted as a functional model in which the altered neuronal response develops in the absence of gross morphological damage, such as that seen in many other epilepsy models. High doses of neurotoxins such as kainate or pilocarpine are administered systematically to produce status epilepticus (continual recurrent seizures). In that case, it is not the status epilepticus that is of interest, but the delayed appearance of spontaneous seizures. Thus, this model has been named post-status epilepticus...

Ocular Pharmacodynamics

The foregoing overview has presented the major classes of ophthalmic drugs. One additional class of drugs that merits brief discussion includes drugs used for the treatment of various dry eye syndromes. The most severe of these, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, involves diminished secretion of mucins, consisting of glycoproteins and glycosamino-glycans and their complexes. These materials serve to coat the corneal epithelium with a hydrophilic layer that uniformly attracts water molecules, resulting in even hydration of the corneal surface. Diminished secretion of these substances causes dry spots to develop on the cornea, resulting in corneal dehydration, which can lead to ulceration, scarring, or corneal opacities (62). Modern pharmaceutical products are available (Hypotears, Tears Naturale Forte) that contain mucomimetic high molecular weight polymers that serve to resurface the cornea temporarily, thereby preventing the aforementioned dehydration and affording the dry eye sufferer with...

Use of Immunomodulatory Drugs for Ophthalmic Therapy

GLUCOCORTICOIDS Glucocorticoids have an important role in managing ocular inflammatory diseases their chemistry and pharmacology are described in Chapter 59. Currently the glucocorticoids formulated for topical administration to the eye are dexamethasone (decadron, others), prednisolone (pred forte, others), fluorometholone (fml, others), loteprednol (alrex, lotemax), medrysone (hms), and rimexolone (vexol). Because of their anti-inflammatory effects, topical glucocorticoids are used in managing significant ocular allergy, anterior uveitis, external eye inflammatory diseases associated with some infections and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, and postoperative inflammation following refractive, corneal, and intraocular surgery. After glaucoma filtering surgery, topical glucocorticoids can delay the wound-healing process by decreasing fibroblast infiltration, thereby reducing potential scarring of the surgical site. Glucocorticoids are commonly given systemically and by sub-Tenon's...

Chemotherapy Of Leprosy

Effective therapy heals ulcers and mucosal lesions in months. Cutaneous nodules respond more slowly, and years may be needed to eradicate bacteria from mucous membranes, skin, and nerves. The degree of residual pigmentation or depigmentation, atrophy, and scarring depends upon the extent of the initial involvement. Severe ocular lesions respond poorly to sulfones, but early treatment may prevent progression. Keratoconjunctivitis and corneal ulceration may be secondary to nerve involvement.

Temporal Sequence of Inflammation and Wound Healing

Inflammation is generally defined as the reaction of vascularized living tissue to local injury. Inflammation serves to contain, neutralize, dilute, or wall off the injurious agent or process. In addition, it sets into motion a series of events that may heal and reconstitute the implant site through replacement of the injured tissue by regeneration of native parenchymal cells, formation of fibroblastic scar tissue, or a combination of these two processes (11,12).

Colloidal silver honey and helichrysum oil antiseptic composition and method of application

Silver sulfadiazine cream, is disclosed as an apparatus in U.S. Pat. No. 4,551,139 to Plaas. The use of silver sulfadiazine with reference to possible aerosol dispersal of wet spray of hydrophilic ointment is found in U.S. Pat. No. 3,761,590 to Fox. Helichrysum angustifolium and italicum (also referred to as immortelle and everlasting) are natural plant oils and are recognized as essential oils with properties promoting the healing process, in human and animal, of traumatic wounds including burns. Helichrysum is the distilled oil produced from flowering heads of Helichrysum Angustifolium D.C. or Italicum and is generally known for the ability to enhance human or animal wound healing and is generally accepted to have antispasmodic, analgesic, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory characteristics in relation to treatment of human or animal trauma. It is also reported to abate bleeding from wounds and in the reduction of scar tissue (The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aroma-Therapy, pages...

Acute Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia PHN

Acute herpes zoster (AHZ shingles) presents as pain usually in V1, distribution the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. The pain is spontaneous and is described as burning, aching or lancinating. There is associated hyperalgesia. Small cutaneous vesicles are seen during AHZ (acute phase) and scarring may be present during post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Post-herpetic neuralgia describes the persistence ofpain after a month, when the vesicles have healed.

Pathognomonic Multiple Sclerosis

Partial or complete healing of areas of segmental narrowing by angiography along the course of the disease has been observed, and it was suggested that angiography may be used in the follow-up of patients and treatment effects.24 Improvement of the abnormalities could be detected on early repeat angio-graphic studies, whereas completely reversible areas of narrowing were less likely to occur later in the course of the disease.24 The increase in stenotic narrowing over time was associated with scarring, rather than inflammation, and detection of nonprogressive fixed deficits after treatment was considered an indication to discontinue immunosuppressive treatment.24 The absence of inflammation demonstrated at autopsy after long-term cyclophosphamide treatment in a patient who had serial angiographies was consistent with this conclusion.33 However, the use of serial angiography has its limitations, and its value in follow-up of treatment is not established therefore, a combination of MRI...

Natural History and Treatment of Lupus Nephritis

Summary Renal involvement occurs in most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This article discusses the natural history and treatment of lupus nephritis. Contemporary therapeutic regimens for immunosuppression and for the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, infections, and seizures have likely contributed to improvements in the prognosis of these patients over the past four decades. Corticosteroids usually ameliorate the manifestations of lupus nephritis but achieve less complete and sustained remissions than cytotoxic drugs. Among the cytotoxic drugs, pulse cyclophosphamide has one of the best profiles of efficacy and toxicity. Because each episode of lupus nephritis exacerbation results in cumulative scarring, atrophy, and fibrosis, the authors recommend continued maintenance treatment for 1 year beyond the point of complete remission of proliferative lupus nephritis. Studies are in progress to determine whether innovative treatment strategies will enhance...

Ocular Toxicity and Irritation

The question of particulate matter is also of great importance, and the European Pharmacopoeia includes specific guidance on the size and number of particles allowable in ophthalmic formulations. Particles administered topically have the potential to damage the epithelial layer, which may lead to infection and scarring. Although the total effect of particulates on intraocular tissue is not completely known, some possible results in the anterior chamber have been postulated (2). Certain amounts of iritis and uveitis might be expected, as well as the production of granulomas similar to the type reported for pulmonary tissue that results from particulates in large-volume parenterals. The possibility is equally important that particulate matter can block the canals of Schlemm, disrupting the outflow mechanism for the aqueous humor and leading to a rapid increase

Vincents pain is persisting long after the resolution of the primary injury and there is nothing in the history

Vincent's clinical examination reveals a long scar on his left shoulder (which looks well healed) and a small patch of skin with sensory loss over the shoulder. There are no signs of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). He tells you that the pain is a constant ache with sharp shooting episodes during the night which is worrying him a lot and keeps him awake. The pain score varies from 5 to 8 out of a maximum of 10. He is worried about moving his neck for fear of worsening of the pain. His medications include acetaminophen, codeine, oral morphine, tramadol, and gabapentin. He mentions that he feels sleepy during the day ever since he has started taking gabapentin. His appetite has increased and he has put on a several pounds. Vincent feels that the medications are harming his creativity.


Epilepsy is the condition of recurrent, unprovoked seizures, i.e., two or more seizures. Epilepsy usually occurs when a person is predisposed to seizures because of a chronic pathological state, e.g., brain tumor, cerebral dysgenesis, posttraumatic scar, a genetic susceptibility, or perhaps a combination of these. Approximately 1 of the population suffers from epilepsy, making it the second most common neurologic disorder (after stroke), affecting more than 2 million persons in the United States.

Antiarrhythmic Drugs

Cardiac cells undergo depolarization and repolarization 60 times min. The shape and duration of each cardiac action potential are determined by the activity of ion channel protein complexes in the membranes of individual cells, and each heartbeat results from the highly integrated electrophysiological behavior of multiple proteins on multiple cardiac cells. Ion channel function can be perturbed by acute ischemia, sympathetic stimulation, or myocardial scarring to create abnormalities of cardiac rhythm, or arrhythmias. Antiarrhythmic drugs suppress arrhythmias by blocking flow through specific ion channels or by altering autonomic function.


Several case reports describe the use of intrathecal Hyaluronidase in the treatment of arachnoiditis where it is assumed that it helps the breakdown of fine adhesions. In my practice we also use it by the epidural route in patients with failed back surgery syndrome and epidural fibrosis where again it may help the breakdown of fine scar tissue but clearly not of more dense adhesions. In this use it quite often gives pain relief that extends to several months with a combination of 3,000 IU Hyaluronidase along with 35 ml 0.025 bupivicaine being used. Given the lack of serious adverse effects with its use, it can be repeated indefinitely, in contrast

Range Of Syndromes

There is no single entity chronic pain after surgery,'' it may present with several different types of pain syndrome. Even one operation, such as open thoracotomy, can cause chronic pain in several different ways the surgeon has to either resect a piece of rib or spread the ribs in order to gain access to the chest. This causes skeletal trauma to the ribs or to the joints at the posterior and anterior articulations which may result in a noci-ceptive, musculoskeletal pain. The intercostal nerves, lying just deep to the inferior border of the ribs, are vulnerable to injury, which may cause neuropathic pain. Surgery involving the lungs, heart, or other organs may contribute to a chronic visceral pain. Chest drains can be a source of pain.8 After breast surgery, patients may experience several types of pain phantom pain,9'10 neuropathic pain caused by damage to the inter-costobrachial nerve,11 or scar pain.12 In addition to pain, patients report a wide diversity of symptoms including...


Cutaneous forms of leishmaniasis generally are self-limiting, with cures occurring within 3-18 months after infection, but can leave disfiguring scars. The mucocutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and visceral forms of the disease do not resolve without therapy. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani is fatal unless treated. The classic therapy for all species of Leishmania is pentavalent antimony, but increasing resistance to this compound has been encountered. Liposo-mal amphotericin B is highly effective for visceral leishmaniasis, and is currently the drug of choice for antimony-resistant disease. Miltefosine, an orally active agent, shows considerable promise for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Paromomycin and pentamidine both have been used successfully as parenteral agents for visceral disease, although pentamidine's usefulness is limited by toxicity. Topical formulations of paromomycin, recently combined with gentamicin, also have been effective for cutaneous disease.


Obliterative endarteritis is a classical pathological feature of late radiation-induced normal tissue injury.14 The ischemia and hypoxia that accompany vascular atrophy are important causes of parenchymal atrophy and loss of tissue function.1516 Radiation fibrosis contributes to loss of function, and several models have been advanced to explain how this develops. A wound repair model describes chronic inflammation induced by chronic cell necrosis after radiation therapy as a potent source of fibrogenic cytokines and fibrogenesis, processes proposed to explain scarring in surgical wounds.17 A rather different explanation is offered by a model that postulates a direct interaction between ionizing radiation and stromal fibroblasts, the latter undergoing differentiation after in vitro exposure to ionizing radiation to a postmitotic senescent phenotype characterized by up-regulated production of collagen, an important component of fibrotic tissue.1819 A third mechanism focuses on tissue...

Physical modalities

Extensibility, and analgesia, in addition to elevating pain threshold and general relaxation.117 Any condition where increased blood flow is of concern (tumors, edema, impaired circulation, bleeding diatheses) or situations with decreased ability to appreciate excessive heating (scars, decreased sensation, cognitive deficits) are contraindications to heat.118

Phantom Limb Pain

The course of phantom limb pain is variable, with up to 56 of patients reporting resolution or improvement in symptoms over time. Pain emerging over time warrants investigation of possible causes producing pain (e.g., infection at the site of amputation, scar tissue, neuroma formation). The cause of phantom pain is unclear. Peripheral processes (i.e., spontaneous discharges emanating from severed nerves containing AS and C fibers) brought on by scar tissue in the amputated limb are thought to be a possible basis of this pain. Spontaneous discharges such as these may be inhibited by infusions of lidocaine but could be exacerbated by irritation of the stump (e.g., tapping) or cold exposure. Alternatively, central processes (i.e., reverberating neural circuits within the central nervous system) have also been implicated as the basis for phantom limb pain.


Clinical features and pathology Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disease of the CNS white matter that displays a triad of pathogenic features mononu-clear cell infiltration, demyelination, and scarring (gliosis). The peripheral nervous system is spared. The disease, which may be episodic or progressive, occurs in early to middle adulthood with prevalence increasing from late adolescence to 35 years and then declining. MS is roughly twice as common in females as in males and occurs mainly in higher latitudes of the temperate climates. Epidemiologic studies suggest a role for environmental factors in the pathogenesis of MS despite many suggestions, associations with infectious agents have proven inconclusive, even though several viruses can cause similar demyelinating diseases in laboratory animals and humans. A stronger linkage is genetic people of Northern European origin have a higher susceptibility to MS, and studies in twins and siblings suggest a genetic...

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis include demyelinated lesions, inflammation, axonal loss and glial scarring. Multiple sclerosis has an autoimmune component whereby the body's own immune cells attack the myelin that surrounds axons. This results in the disruption of axonal action potentials in the CNS and is associated with periods of relapse. Spontaneous repair takes place in the early stages, but with disease progression axons are lost and lesions become filled with scarring astrocytes. This produces an unfavorable environment for repair, leading to persisting changes, permanent loss of function and disability. Holley et al. 68 demonstrated that Prdx 5 was overexpressed in multiple sclerosis (MS) normal-appearing white matter, and even stronger in chronic lesions. Astrocytes in MS lesions were the predominant cells overexpressing Prdx 5. Surprisingly, strong Prdx 5 expression was not only detected in the active, inflammatory acute lesions but was even more pronounced in chronic lesions where the...

Spine Injections

Cervical Facet Joint Referred Pain

Epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are the most commonly performed injection for back pain. They may be performed in all segments of the spine, but are most commonly done in the lumbar and cervical regions. The usual approach is through the interlaminar window, but this is not always possible. Removal of bone and ligament, hardware implantation, and postsurgical scarring can make the interlaminar approach both difficult and risky. Transforaminal, caudal, and sacral approaches to steroid injections may be necessary due to the anatomic alterations or pathologic changes in the spine. Clinical practice data have shown that cervical interlaminar ESI is safer than cervical transforaminal injection. Lumbar interlaminar ESIs compared with lumbar transforaminal injection are equally safe and efficacious. Epidural fibrosis or adhesions may form spontaneously or after a surgery. They may cause back pain or radicular symptoms in addition to limiting the effectiveness of epidural injections. The...

Mode Of Action

It is generally assumed that the pathology of MS is related to an activation and proliferation of T cells (Thl type CD4+) specific for epitopes of myelin antigens (MOG, MBP, MOG, PLP, p-crystalline, etc.). These T cells subsequently enter the brain. By interacting with MHC II molecules on microglia and macrophages (and possibly other cells) and with their specific antigen, they form a so-called tri-molecular complex. This is part of an inflammatory reaction, with production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as y-interferon, IL-1, IL-2 and TNFa. Probably facilitated by antibodies and complement, these acute inflammation products (via intermediates such as NO and other free radicals), destroy myelin around the axons. Also, either directly or in a secondary way, the oligodendrocytes of which myelin is a part are also destroyed. In addition to demyelination, these mechanism might also interfere with axonal and neuronal function, and this reaction is also correlated with the...

Viable Epidermis

The interface the viable epidermis makes with the stratum corneum is flat. However, the interface with the dermis is papillose (mounded). Myriad tiny bulges of the epidermis fit with exacting reciprocity over dermal depressions and ridges. It is these ridges that give the friction surfaces of the body their distinctive patterns (e.g., fingerprints). Importantly, since hair follicles and eccrine glands have epidermal origins, cells capable of regenerating the epidermis actually extend well into and through the dermis by way of these tiny glands (Figure 1). When the skin is superficially injured, surviving cells at the base of these glands regenerate a scar-free surface. Discounting these deep rootages, the epidermis is on the order of 100 to 250 im thick (9).

Gabriel A Silva

Abstract Functionalized quantum dot nanocrystals provide an opportunity for high signal-to-noise ratio specific labeling of cells with micron-scale spatial resolution, and extend the cellular imaging toolbox available to the cellular neurobiologist. In this review we discuss previous work from our group aimed at optimizing quantum dot labeling protocols specific to neurons and neural glial cells, labeling and imaging of intact neural retinal tissue sections in a rat model of retinal degeneration focused on the formation of the glial scar following focal reactive gliosis, and on the characterization and estimation of the number of functionally available antibodies for biological binding conjugated to quantum dots following two popular conjugation schemes.

Plantago major L

Lacing Patterns Printable Cardspnhg

Surface view Irregularly shaped upper and lower epidermal cells with slightly rounded to wavy anticlinal walls and an often striated cuticle dense anomocytic and some diacytic stomata, approximately 25-30 m long, occur on both surfaces, as do covering and glandular trichomes covering trichomes are uniseriate, up to 300 m long, and composed of few cells with slightly thickened walls in outline they are conical with an acute terminal cell the basal cell, embedded in epidermis, is approximately two times the diameter of the adjacent trichome cell and much larger than other epidermal cells scars left by broken trichomes form a circular cicatrix considerably larger than


Of lymphatic flow, causing an imbalance between capillary filtration and lymph drainage.5758 Although physical removal of lymphatic vessels at surgery offers a partial explanation, the variable onset, progression rate, and ultimate severity indicate that this is not the only mechanism. Radiotherapy to the axilla is a potent cause of arm lymphedema in its own right, more so after any kind of surgical disturbance of the axilla.59 The continuous accumulation and contraction of scar tissue over many years is considered to be a potent cause of progressive lymphatic obstruction in response to radiotherapy. The most vivid accounts of fibrosis are from the surgical records of affected patients describing scar tissue infiltrating and compressing axillary structures, especially the neurovascular sheath.

Iron Poisoning

Drowsiness, hyperventilation due to acidosis, and cardiovascular collapse. The corrosive injury to the stomach may result in pyloric stenosis or gastric scarring. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and hepatic damage are prominent findings at autopsy. In the evaluation of a child thought to have ingested iron, a color test for iron in the gastric contents and an emergency determination of the concentration of iron in plasma can be performed. If the latter is

Computer models

The multiple operated back, often termed failed back surgery syndrome'' (FBSS) or postlaminectomy syndrome is currently the most common indication for spinal stimulation.22 The care of the multiple operated back pain patients is difficult, and requires a multimodal approach that includes physical modalities, cognitive-behavioral therapies, procedural and pharmacologic therapies. Patients with ongoing postsurgical pain have complex pain patterns that often include both back and leg pains of various types (nociceptive, mixed, and neuropathic pains). Causes vary, but include cauda equina syndrome, arachnoiditis, epidural scarring or fibrosis, chronic radicular pain, and many others. Choosing the correct diagnosis is extremely important, as is the proper therapy for each diagnosis. Many patients simply want resolution and will repeatedly opt for more surgery in spite of little evidence of efficacy. An algorithmic approach within an established spinal care network can be useful. Several...


Gill et al. (1991) evaluated the effectiveness of ivermectin for the treatment of earsore (Stephanofilaria zaheeri) in water buffalo under continuous challenge in the field. Animals exhibiting clinical signs of earsore were treated with ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 g kg-1. Based on parasite counts of skin scrapings, ivermectin eliminated microfilariae in 14 out of 17 animals by day 28 post-treatment, while mean numbers of microfilariae in non-treated control animals increased over the same period. No appreciable effect on adult worm counts was observed in ivermectin-treated animals. Mean severity scores for earsore lesions were reduced in ivermectin-treated animals but increased in the control water buffalo during the study. No adverse reactions to treatment were observed. An 85 cure rate for S. zaheeri was observed in buffalo treated twice subcutaneously at a 28-day interval with 200 g kg-1 of ivermectin, as judged by disappearance of lesions and evidence of scar tissue formation...

Case Scenario

The pain from laparoscopic tubal ligation is usually of moderate intensity and Anita responds to further doses of opioid and ketorolac. She is discharged 2 days later. Three months after her surgery Anita is back to see you in the pain clinic. She has been referred to you by her primary care physician for the evaluation of a tender scar above the belly button. She tells you that the scar sometimes burns . She mentions that ever since the laparoscopic her surgery, she has been suffering from severe and unbearable colicky pelvic pain radiating to her lower back. The pain comes during her mid-menstrual cycle. Anita is convinced that it is related to her ovulation. Her primary care physician has tried various analgesics and antidepressants without any benefit. Anita is concerned that her relationship with Leonardo is on the verge of breaking up. On examination you find that she has a very tender mass in the left iliac fossa. What is your analgesic of choice for Anita Since the pain is...

Oral Ulcers

Ulcers in the mouth can be a cause of severe recurrent pain. The various ulcers can be grouped as recurrent oral aphthae, acute herpetic gingival stomatitis, acute candidiasis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Aphthous ulcer is recurrent, stress induced, and painful. Diagnosis is clinical. A large aphthous ulcer is designated a major aphthous and heals by scarring.


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Waldman et al. 2006c) captures absorption and emission energies of molecules in the body to reproduce images of the scanned area. MRI provides excellent soft tissue contrast resolution. Spinous abnormalities like degenerative disk disease, joint disease, fractures, and neoplasms are readily discernable using MRI images. While tendons and ligaments prove hard to evaluate on CT, MRI is able to evaluate these soft tissue structures for sprains, tears, and inflammation. Gadolinium contrast further enhances MRI by enabling the detection of vascular abnormalities and epidural scarring.

Phantom pain

The exact cause of phantom pain is not clearly understood. One proposed mechanism involves stimulation of the sensory pathway that had once originated in the amputated body part. An important point is that the sensory pathway originating in a given body part transmits impulses to the region of the somatosensory cortex devoted to that body part regardless of amputation. Stimulation at any point along this pathway results in the same sensation that would be produced by stimulation of the nociceptor in the body part itself. Following amputation of a body part, the ends of the afferent nerves arising from that body part become trapped in the scar tissue of the

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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