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Electronics Repair Manuals

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Electronics Repair Manuals Summary

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Curiepoint Pyrolysis Ms System

Schematic diagram of a Curie-point Py-MS system. Typical operating conditions buffer volume (expansion chamber) temperature 150-175 C Eei 13-15 eV ion energy 5-10 eV mass range m z 15 to between m z 130 and m z 200 scanning speed 8-10 spectra s total scanning time 15-30 s.

Brain Targeting Using Immunoliposomes

Schematic diagram of coupling of a thiolated antibody to a linker lipid (maleimide-PEG-phospholipid) which is part of a preformed liposome. The resulting thioether bond is meta-bolically stable. The strategy shown here was used to synthesize OX26-immunoliposomes 111 .

Isothermal titration calorimetry

A schematic diagram of an ITC experiment is shown in Figure 2. A solution of one reactant (usually the protein) is maintained at a constant temperature in a sample cell. This is kept warmer than the surrounding isothermal jacket so that there is a constant thermal gradient and thus a constant input of energy is required to the sample heating coil. A concentrated solution Figure 4. Secondary structure schematic diagram of the structure of the OppA protein complexed with KnapK 6 as pink van der Waals spheres (pdb code 1b0h). Figure 4. Secondary structure schematic diagram of the structure of the OppA protein complexed with KnapK 6 as pink van der Waals spheres (pdb code 1b0h).

Secondgeneration Ciefrplcms System

Although the first-generation system demonstrates the potential use of CIEF-RPLC-MS for protein separation and identification, it also has a disadvantage the time allowed for RPLC is so short that the separation has to be run with a very fast gradient, giving poor resolving power. An improved CIEF-RPLC-MS system has been designed and constructed to solve this problem.44 A schematic diagram of this second-generation system is shown in Figure 5.6. Compared with the system described above, the major difference is that there is an array of 10 storage loop located between the CIEF and RPLC instruments, and these loops retain the protein fractions, allowing more time for the RPLC step. With this setup, a shallower gradient is possible for RPLC separation, resulting in higher resolving power. In addition, a wider bore CIEF capillary (100 mm i.d.) is used so that more sample can be loaded. This system is used to profile proteins from a complex yeast enzyme concentrate, 11mg mL1, in ampholyte...

In Situ Proteolysis Of

In situ proteolysis and epitope-specific immunoprecipitation of DAT fragments. A) Rat striatal membranes photoaffinity labeled with 125I DEEP or 125I RTI 82 were treated with trypsin and were immunoprecipitated with the antisera indicated at the tops of the gels. The 45-kDa 125I DEEP-labeled fragment immunoprecipitates with antisera 15 and 16, while the 14-kDa fragment precipitates only with serum 16. The 32-kDa 125I RTI 82-labeled fragment immunoprecipitates with antisera 5, 12, and 18, while the 16-kDa fragment precipitates only with serum 5. The schematic diagram of DAT below the autoradiograph shows the positions of the 12 transmembrane domains (filled rectangles), antibody epitopes (numbered rectangles), and potential trypsin cut sites (tick marks). The lines connecting the photolabeled fragments to the diagram indicate their origin in the primary sequence. (From Vaughan and Kuhar 1996, by permission). B) Summary of photoaffin-ity-label incorporation sites. Schematic...

Biopharmaceutical Preformulation

Figure 4 Schematic diagram of Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayer. Cells grown on monolayer support bathed in tissue culture medium once monolayer is functional, drugs can be added to either compartment and appearance in the opposing compartment measured. Figure 4 Schematic diagram of Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayer. Cells grown on monolayer support bathed in tissue culture medium once monolayer is functional, drugs can be added to either compartment and appearance in the opposing compartment measured.

Cellular Transport Function In Abcr

Schematic diagram of the retinoid cycle. Shown are the various conversions of all-trans-retinol (Vitamin A) during the visual cycle. ABCR plays an essential role in this sequence by removal of all-trans retinal, most likely in the form of the complex lipid N-retinylidene- phos-phatidylethanolamine (N-RPE) from the rod outer segment disks. Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the retinoid cycle. Shown are the various conversions of all-trans-retinol (Vitamin A) during the visual cycle. ABCR plays an essential role in this sequence by removal of all-trans retinal, most likely in the form of the complex lipid N-retinylidene- phos-phatidylethanolamine (N-RPE) from the rod outer segment disks.

Rapid Method Development

Fig. 13.5 A schematic diagram showing the stepwise procedure for rapid method development of HPLC-MS MS methods for discovery PK assays. Adapted from 10 , with permission from the American Chemical Society. Fig. 13.5 A schematic diagram showing the stepwise procedure for rapid method development of HPLC-MS MS methods for discovery PK assays. Adapted from 10 , with permission from the American Chemical Society.

Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Stress in pd

Tmrm Rotenone And Hek293 Cells

Schematic diagram of a mitochondrion showing the electron transport chain and location of selected proteins involved in oxidative stress. IMM, intermitochondrial membrane OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane IMS, inner matrix surface ROS Suc, succinate Fum, Fumurate, DOPAL, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl- acetaldehyde mito. DNA, mitochondrial DNA DA, dopamine MAO, monoamine oxidase. PINK1, PTEN-induced kinase 1 LRKK2, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 DJ-1, mitochondrial antioxidant protein HTRA2, high temperature requirement protein A2 GST, glutathione S-transferase parkin, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase a-synuclin, a presynaptic protein. Auto-oxidation of dopamine produces dopamine quinones, and deficiency of glutathione results in cellular toxicity. Figure 7. Schematic diagram of a mitochondrion showing the electron transport chain and location of selected proteins involved in oxidative stress. IMM, intermitochondrial membrane OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane IMS, inner matrix surface ROS...

Chances Stopped Flow Technique Revolutionized the Investigation of Moderately Fast Reactions

FIGURE 10.4 Stopped-flow kinetics apparatus. A, Schematic diagram. A pneumatic driver rapidly forces the plungers forward, driving reactants within syringes A and B through a multi-jet mixer. The mixed solution passes through an observation port (which can be arranged for either absorbance or fluorescence measurements) and into a stopping syringe. The backward motion of the plunger in the stopping triggers data acquisition. B, Applied Physics SX.18MV-R stopped-flow apparatus, providing the basic platform for high performance stopped flow research. In its standard form, the instrument provides a single mixing, single wavelength absorbance and fluorescence detection capability of outstanding sensitivity. Reproduced with permission. FIGURE 10.4 Stopped-flow kinetics apparatus. A, Schematic diagram. A pneumatic driver rapidly forces the plungers forward, driving reactants within syringes A and B through a multi-jet mixer. The mixed solution passes through an observation port (which can be...

Agonist trafficking what do models predict

Figure 197 Schematic diagram of three receptors interacting with three G proteins. Antagonists would recognize three 'receptor types', while agonists would recognize up to nine 'receptor types'. Reproduced from Kenakin, T. (1996) Pharmacological Reviews, 48, 413-463, with permission from the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Figure 197 Schematic diagram of three receptors interacting with three G proteins. Antagonists would recognize three 'receptor types', while agonists would recognize up to nine 'receptor types'. Reproduced from Kenakin, T. (1996) Pharmacological Reviews, 48, 413-463, with permission from the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Anatomical And Physiological Considerations Of The Gastrointestinal Tract

Hernias Along The Tract

Figure 6 (A) Scanning electron micrograph of the luminal surface of the large intestine (transverse colon magnification 60x). (B) Schematic diagram showing a longitudinal cross-section of the large intestine. (C) Enlargement of cross-section shown in (B). Source Part A from Ref. 6 (see p. 135) and parts B and C modified from Ref. 8. Figure 6 (A) Scanning electron micrograph of the luminal surface of the large intestine (transverse colon magnification 60x). (B) Schematic diagram showing a longitudinal cross-section of the large intestine. (C) Enlargement of cross-section shown in (B). Source Part A from Ref. 6 (see p. 135) and parts B and C modified from Ref. 8.

Aea Cb1 Cb2 Angiogenesis Invasion Migration

Figure 18.1 Schematic diagram of the cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanisms whereby AEA leads to tumor growth suppression and or cell death. AEA may act via the Cb1 receptor to activate the cAMP PKA MAPK pathway or to increase the production of ceramide. These effects ultimately result in a decrease in the expression of various growth factor receptors and decrease cell cycle progression. Alternatively, AEA may activate either Cb2 or VR1 to elicit a similar response, although the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Figure 18.1 Schematic diagram of the cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanisms whereby AEA leads to tumor growth suppression and or cell death. AEA may act via the Cb1 receptor to activate the cAMP PKA MAPK pathway or to increase the production of ceramide. These effects ultimately result in a decrease in the expression of various growth factor receptors and decrease cell cycle progression. Alternatively, AEA may activate either Cb2 or VR1 to elicit a similar...

Relationships Between Properties

Fig. 19 Schematic diagram showing the relationship between the hardness (H), yield stress (ay), and Young's modulus of elasticity (E) for a range of materials (adapted from Tabor, 1979). Fig. 19 Schematic diagram showing the relationship between the hardness (H), yield stress (ay), and Young's modulus of elasticity (E) for a range of materials (adapted from Tabor, 1979).

Installation Qualification

Electrical Components and Instrumentation Calibration - to include reference to the electrical standards, hardware and software inventory and specifications, wiring diagrams, schematic diagrams, loop diagrams, interlock descriptions, critical instrument listing and calibration procedures and certificates.

Different Classes Of Heterotrimeric G Proteins And Their Coupling Properties

Olfative Pathway

This schematic diagram demonstrates how the Gas-AC pathway regulates multiple physiological processes, including olfaction, homeostatic regulatory functions, proliferation, and differentiation. AC, adenylyl cyclase PKA, protein kinase A CNGC, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel GEF, guanine exchange factor Rapl, a small GTPase MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase B-Raf, MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase for MAP Kinase Kinase 1,2. Fig. 1. The Gas signaling pathway. This schematic diagram demonstrates how the Gas-AC pathway regulates multiple physiological processes, including olfaction, homeostatic regulatory functions, proliferation, and differentiation. AC, adenylyl cyclase PKA, protein kinase A CNGC, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel GEF, guanine exchange factor Rapl, a small GTPase MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase B-Raf, MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase for MAP Kinase Kinase 1,2. Fig. 2. The Gai o and Gbg signaling pathway. This schematic diagram demonstrates...

Pathophysiological Events in Neuronal Network

Schematic diagram of the sequence of a partial seizure. Initially, neurons fire normally with single action potentials. The hallmark of interictal firing is the paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS). As the PDS gradually loses its post-PDS hyperpolarization (short vertical arrow), as the firing of local neurons becomes synchronized, a seizure occurs (longer vertical arrow). The ictal electrical signature of a seizure is a persistent depolarizing plateau potential (asterisk) on which are superimposed bursts of clustered spikes. Spread of the seizure beyond the local area depends on overcoming the strong inhibitory surround adjacent to the focus. Finally, the seizure stops and normal firing resumes. Separate physiologic mechanisms regulate each of these steps (see text). Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the sequence of a partial seizure. Initially, neurons fire normally with single action potentials. The hallmark of interictal firing is the paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS). As the...

Factors Affecting Dissolution

Several physicochemical processes need to be considered along with the drug substance dissolution process to determine the overall dissolution rate of drugs from solid dosage forms under standardized conditions. The dissolution process for a solid dosage form (or a drug product) in solution starts with the wetting and the penetration of the dissolution medium into the solid formulation. It is generally followed by disintegration and or deaggregation into granules or fine particles. However, this step is not a prerequisite for dissolution. The final step involves solubilization (or dissolution) of the drug substance into the dissolution medium. A schematic diagram illustrating the processes involved in the dissolution of solid dosage forms is shown in Fig. 3.3. It should be noted that these steps can also occur simultaneously during the dissolution process. For most poorly soluble drugs, dissolution is considered to be dissolution controlled, since solubilization of drug particles is...

Enhanced Excitability In Immature Brain

Schematic diagram of the changes in GABA responsiveness over development. (A) In early development, activation of postsynaptic GABAa receptors causes efflux of Cl- ions because of the high intracellular Cl- concentration. This Cl- efflux causes membrane depolarization, because there is a net loss of negative charge from inside the neuron. (B) Later in development, the Cl- transporter KCC2 (not present early in development) reverses the Cl- gradient, such that the basal Cl- concentration is higher extracellularly. In this case, activation of GABAA receptors causes Cl- influx and hyper-polarization (net inward movement of negative charge), the usual function attributed to GABA. Fig. 8. Schematic diagram of the changes in GABA responsiveness over development. (A) In early development, activation of postsynaptic GABAa receptors causes efflux of Cl- ions because of the high intracellular Cl- concentration. This Cl- efflux causes membrane depolarization, because there is a net loss...

Interactions Between Pmca And Phospholipid Nmethylation

PMCA is very sensitive to the phospholipid milieu in which it is situated. Activation of PMCA by acidic phospholipids has been found to increase both the Vmax and the affinity for Ca2+.33 Our continued interest in phospholipid methylation (PLM)-PMCA interactions derives from its enhancement by volatile and gaseous anesthetics, which may produce changes in the membrane lipid microenvironment of PMCA, with associated changes in PMCA pumping activity. PLM, a ubiquitous process occurring in cell membranes, utilizes two enzymes, phospholipid-N-meth-yltransferases I and II (PLMT I and II), which successively methylate phosphati-dylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine (PME), phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine (PDE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC). PLMT I, located on the cytoplasmic surface, drives the first, rate-limiting, methylation step, producing PME. Associated with successive methylation is rapid translocation of the methylated product from the inner to the outer...

Principles of Negative Feedback Illustrated by the HPA System

Schematic diagram of the elements involved in glucocorticoid negative feedback. The paraventricular nuclei (PVN) contain the main stress (final common pathway neurons) secreting both CRF-41 and AVP. The negative feedback action of Cortisol (corticosterone in rodents) is exerted mainly on the PVN and the pituitary corticotropes. However, long-term effects mediated through the hippocampus (Hipp) and amygdala (not shown) cannot be excluded. There are several possible indirect connections between the hippocampus and the PVN. Neural control of ACTH secretion may also be mediated by a corticotropin inhibitory peptide, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). The inset shows the important inhibitory action of Cortisol on the immune defence system (IDS). The IDS produces cytokines (CYT) which act on the brain to stimulate ACTH secretion. Cytokine secretion is inhibited by the negative feedback effect of glucocorticoids. Figure 6. Schematic diagram of the elements involved in glucocorticoid...

Interplay Between Thermodynamics Kinetics and Molecular Recognition

Schematic diagram for a hypothetical transition from the initial state, G , to two different solid forms A or B, with free energies GA and GB. Form A is more stable and less soluble than B. A transition from the initial state G to state A or B will depend on the energy barrier and according to this reaction pathway the height of the energy barrier for structure A, (GA G ) is greater than that for B, (GB G ). Because the rate of nucleation is related to the height of the energy barrier on the reaction path, B will nucleate at a faster rate than A even though the change in free energy is greater for A (GA G ) than for B (GB G ). From Rodriguez-Spong et al., (2004). Figure 11. Schematic diagram for a hypothetical transition from the initial state, G , to two different solid forms A or B, with free energies GA and GB. Form A is more stable and less soluble than B. A transition from the initial state G to state A or B will depend on the energy barrier and according to this...

Selective Removal of Copper Bound to Metallothionein

Diagram Copper Transport Liver

Excessive Cu is excreted into the bile, the chemical form of Cu transported into the bile being assumed to be cuprous ions as a result of the function of ATP7B. The schematic diagram for the role of ATP7B is shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Schematic diagram for the transport of Cu into the Golgi apparatus and the bile by ATP7B. Fig. 3. Schematic diagram for the transport of Cu into the Golgi apparatus and the bile by ATP7B.

Direct Downstream Effectors Of The G Protein Pathway

The Ga12 13 signaling pathways. This schematic diagram demonstrates how the Ga12 13 pathway regulates multiple cellular pathways to affect physiological processes such as transcription, proliferation, and cell movement. LPA, lysophosphatidic acid NHE, sodium-hydrogen exchanger GEF, guanine exchange factor Ras, a small GTPase Rho, a small GTPase PLD, phospholipase D. Fig. 4. The Ga12 13 signaling pathways. This schematic diagram demonstrates how the Ga12 13 pathway regulates multiple cellular pathways to affect physiological processes such as transcription, proliferation, and cell movement. LPA, lysophosphatidic acid NHE, sodium-hydrogen exchanger GEF, guanine exchange factor Ras, a small GTPase Rho, a small GTPase PLD, phospholipase D.

Steroid Positive Feedback Spontaneous Gonadotropin And Prolactin Surges

Schematic diagram of the control of the ovarian cycle by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing-hormone (LH) released from the anterior pituitary gland. The secretion of LH and FSH is controlled by the brain by way of luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), a decapeptide that is released from hypothalamic neurons into the hypophysial portal vessels. The release of LHRH from hypothalamic neurons is influenced by external and internal factors acting by way of central nervous pathways, and the system is regulated by positive- and negative-feedback control involving estrogen and progesterone secreted by the ovary. Estrogen and progesterone act on the uterus to prepare the endometrium for implantation of the zygote should fertilization occur. Not shown, for the sake of simplicity, is the protein, inhibin, which is secreted by ovarian follicles and inhibits FSH release. From Fink (1988a) with permission .

Scheme 251

FIGURE 2.41 Schematic diagram for cytochrome c oxidase subunit-II and subunit-III interactions with electrons, protons and molecular oxygen atoms. From Nicholls and Ferguson (2002) with permission of the authors and publisher FIGURE 2.41 Schematic diagram for cytochrome c oxidase subunit-II and subunit-III interactions with electrons, protons and molecular oxygen atoms. From Nicholls and Ferguson (2002) with permission of the authors and publisher

Biogenesis Of miRNAs

Mechanism of biogenesis and function in miRNAs. A schematic diagram of miRNA biogenesis is shown. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and sequentially processed by drosha DGCR8 and dicer. miRNA-loaded RISC causes the cleavage or translational silencing of target mRNAs. Fig. 1. Mechanism of biogenesis and function in miRNAs. A schematic diagram of miRNA biogenesis is shown. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and sequentially processed by drosha DGCR8 and dicer. miRNA-loaded RISC causes the cleavage or translational silencing of target mRNAs.

Hyponatremia

Brain Adaptation to Hypoosmolality Schematic diagram of brain volume adaptation to hyponatremia. Under normal conditions brain osmolality and extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality are in equilibrium (top panel for simplicity the predominant intracellular solutes are depicted as K+ and organic osmolytes, and the extracellular solute as Na+). Following the induction of ECF hypoosmolality, water moves into the brain in response to osmotic gradients producing brain edema (middle panel, 1, dotted lines). However, in response to the induced swelling the brain rapidly loses both extracellular and intracellular solutes (middle panel, 2). As water losses accompany the losses of brain solute, the expanded brain volume then decreases back toward normal (middle panel, 3). If hypoosmolality is sustained, brain volume eventually normalizes completely and the brain becomes fully adapted to the ECF hyponatremia (bottom panel). Reproduced with permission from (1).

Solid Dispersion

A schematic diagram illustrating the advantages of a solid dispersion as compared to a conventional capsule or tablet formulation is shown in Figure 1 (7). The drug dissolution rate from conventional tablet and capsule formulations is controlled by the size of the primary drug particles, which are limited to a minimum size of around 2 to 5 m. In most cases, however, powders with particle sizes larger than the minimum 2 to 5 m ranges are preferred in capsules and tablets for ease of handling, formulation, and manufacturing. In comparison, a portion of the drug contained in a solid dispersion dissolves immediately upon contact with the GI fluid, resulting in a saturated or supersaturated solution for rapid absorption, and the excess drug precipitates in the GI fluid, forming amorphous or crystalline particles in the sub-micron size range with high surface area and a correspondingly high dissolution and absorption rate. These characteristics often result in substantially improved drug...

Atp7a216

Schematic diagram of ATP7A2-16 and NML45. Both alternative transcript products feature one Cu-binding site. NML45 is characterized by a nuclear localization sequence on the N-terminus and a -SH rich region near the C-terminus of the peptide. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of ATP7A2-16 and NML45. Both alternative transcript products feature one Cu-binding site. NML45 is characterized by a nuclear localization sequence on the N-terminus and a -SH rich region near the C-terminus of the peptide.

Synthetic coPolymers

Schematic diagram showing the structure of a typical polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate and the chemical structure of PEG-asparaginase. Figure 8.4. Schematic diagram showing the structure of a typical polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate and the chemical structure of PEG-asparaginase.

Insulin Resistance

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of the glucose transporter translocation hypothesis. Insulin-responsive tissues, specifically adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, contain intracellular stores of glucose transporter proteins (GLUT). The binding of insulin and the subsequent increase in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor initiates a signaling cascade, which results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS 1 -n), their binding to the enzyme phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and the resultant activation of PI 3-kinase to produce phosphorylated phosphoinositides. This signaling cascade leads to the mobilization and insertion of stored glucose transporters into the plasma membrane, allowing for increased glucose influx into the cell in response to insulin.

Glut4

Figure 6 Schematic diagram of the proposed a-lipoic acid signaling mechanism, a-Lipoic acid uses components of the insulin signaling pathway in its ability to stimulate glucose uptake via the rapid translocation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. In L6 myotubes, it has been shown that lipoic acid activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt in a wortmannin-sensitive fashion. These results indicate that lipoic acid uses components of the insulin signal transduction cascade in its ability to increase glucose uptake into insulin-responsive cells in culture.

Csubunit

More than three decades after its original isolation by Racker's group. For an account of the early work, see Reference 158 . The studies on the bovine F ATPase culminated in 1994 with the publication of the structure at 2.8 A resolution by Walker's group at Cambridge 159 . This achievement was recognized by a Nobel Prize in 1997. Over the years the structure evolved from being the globular head of a lollipop roughly 100 A in diameter, to an increasingly refined description of a number of distinct features based on interpretation of data from enzyme kinetics, biochemistry, im-munochemistry, cryoelectron microscopy, and others. For example, the subunit stoichiometry and the determination of nucleotide binding sites suggested the presence of a threefold axis of rotation, and it was reasonable to make this axis parallel to the stalk. Now that the crystal structure of this 371 kDa complex is available, the description could go into considerable detail. Reference to schematic diagrams will...

Undecylenic Acid

Figure 49-1 provides a schematic diagram of the replicative cycle of a DNA virus (A) and an RNA virus (B). DNA viruses include poxviruses (smallpox), herpesviruses (chickenpox, shingles, oral and genital herpes), adenoviruses (conjunctivitis, sore throat), hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus HBV ), and papillomaviruses (warts). Typically, DNA viruses enter the host cell nucleus, where the viral DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) by host cell polymerase and mRNA is translated into virus-specific proteins.

Caveats to BTSC

Schematic diagram to illustrate potential difficulties in sorting and identifying ''cancer stem cells.'' Top, theoretical concerns bottom, technical concerns.17 From Hill R. Identifying cancer stem cells in solid tumors case not proven. Cancer Res 2006 66 1891-5 discussion 1890. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Figure 3. Schematic diagram to illustrate potential difficulties in sorting and identifying ''cancer stem cells.'' Top, theoretical concerns bottom, technical concerns.17 From Hill R. Identifying cancer stem cells in solid tumors case not proven. Cancer Res 2006 66 1891-5 discussion 1890. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Hplcmsms Overview

Fig. 13.2 Schematic diagram showing the various stages and the iterative steps involved in the lead optimization process from a DMPK perspective. This schematic represents the iterative process that is an important part of the lead optimization process. The in vitro and in vivo screens refer to DMPK assays. Reprinted from 12 , with permission from Taylor and Francis Group. Fig. 13.2 Schematic diagram showing the various stages and the iterative steps involved in the lead optimization process from a DMPK perspective. This schematic represents the iterative process that is an important part of the lead optimization process. The in vitro and in vivo screens refer to DMPK assays. Reprinted from 12 , with permission from Taylor and Francis Group.

Structure of PDE4

Pde Structure Schematic

Schematic diagram of the gene organization of the four PDE4 sub-families showing the exons that encode the core UCR1 2 and catalytic regions, the exons that encode the long form 5' unique regions and the positions of other unique exons. Also shown are the four isoform subcategories based upon presence or absence of UCR1 2 regions and generated by alternative mRNA splicing Fig. 2 The PDE4 enzyme family. Schematic diagram of the gene organization of the four PDE4 sub-families showing the exons that encode the core UCR1 2 and catalytic regions, the exons that encode the long form 5' unique regions and the positions of other unique exons. Also shown are the four isoform subcategories based upon presence or absence of UCR1 2 regions and generated by alternative mRNA splicing

Aorenal

Schematic diagram which shows the cascade of events which generates the spontaneous ovulatory LH surge in the rat. The increase in plasma concentrations of estradiol-17p (E2 the ovarian signal) increases the responsiveness of the pituitary gonadotropes (increased stippling) to LHRH and also triggers the surge of LHRH. Pituitary responsiveness to LHRH is further increased by progesterone (P) secreted from the ovary in response to the LH released during the early part of the LH surge and by the priming effect of LHRH, the unique capacity of the decapeptide to increase pituitary responsiveness to itself. The priming effect of LHRH coordinates the surges of LHRH with increasing pituitary responsiveness so that the two events reach a peak at the same time. The conditions are thereby made optimal for a massive surge of LH. This cascade, which represents a form of positive feedback, is terminated by destruction of a major component of the system in the form of the rupture of the...

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