Attract The Opposite Sex With Pheromones

Pheromone Advantage

Pheromone Advantage is a formula that Dr. Virgil Amend has designed and tested rigorously in the real world, designed to ignite passions in women without even knowing why they can't resist you. Dr. Amend is one of the world's leading experts on pheromones, and his research will have a direct affect on your love life with this product. Pheromone Advantage uses a carefully-selected and tested blend of pheromones to arouse feelings of desire on a deep and primal level in the women around you. Your problem will be selected which women you want; this pheromone blend is powerful enough that most women in the area will have a deep sexual attraction to you. Pheromone Advantage is certain to be the most effective thing you have ever done to your love life. Pheromones cannot be detected physically; but you will see the effects without a doubt! All you have to do is apply the solution to your exposed skin, then you're off to the best sex of your life! Read more...

Pheromone Advantage Summary

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Creator: Dr. Virgil Amend
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Pheromone production biosynthesis of pheromones

The first insect sex pheromone identified was bombykol, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol (Butenandt et al., 1959) from the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori (L.). The elucidation of the structure spanned 20 years and required a half million female abdomens. A few years later, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate was identified as the sex pheromone of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Berger, 1966). By 1970, following the pioneering work by Silverstein on bark beetles, in which three terpenes were identified as a synergistic pheromone blend for Ips paraconfusus (Silverstein et al., 1966), it became recognized that most insect pheromones consisted of multicomponent blends. This has since been shown to be true for most insects, and single-component pheromones are rare. Over the past four decades, extensive research on insect pheromones has resulted in the chemical and or behavioral elucidation of pheromone components from several thousand species of insects, with much of the work concentrating on sex...

Endocrine regulation of pheromone production

The production and or release of sex pheromones is influenced by a variety of environmental factors (Shorey, 1974). In general, insects do not release pheromones until they are reproductively competent, although exceptions occur. Pheromone production is usually age related and coincides with the maturation of ovaries or testes, and in some cases with feeding. The observation that females of certain species have repeated reproductive cycles and that mating occurs only during defined periods of each cycle led to the proposal that pheromone production might be under hormonal control (Barth, 1965). Early work on cockroaches established that females require the presence of functional corpora allata in order to produce sex pheromones. Allatectomized females produce no pheromone and this prevents successful mating (Barth, 1961, 1962). Within a few years, the role of juvenile hormone (JH) in regulating pheromone production was established, and JH was shown to regulate pheromone production in...

Sex pheromone glands in the Pterygota Hemipteroidea

Of the remaining orders, probably the best studied, from the perspective of the source of secretions and chemistry, are the true bugs (Hemiptera), particularly the male-produced sex pheromones of Pentatomidae (e.g. Aldrich et al., 1984) and female sex pheromones of scales and aphids (e.g. Moreno and Fargerlund 1975 Galli 1998).

Sex pheromone glands in the Pterygota Orthopteroidea

Of the eight orders in this group, no sex pheromones are known in the Grylloblattaria and Embiidina. Of the remaining orders, probably the best studied are the cockroaches and termites, particularly the latter because of the involvement of pheromonal signals in their social structure (Vander Meer et al., 1998). A pair of globular structures that protrude from the intersegmental membrane between tergites 5 and 6 are displayed during the evening hours by female mantid, Tarachodes afzelii (Mantodea). This behavior has been speculated to result in emission of a volatile sex pheromone (Edmunds, 1975). There has been no further work on this or other species of mantids to determine if indeed sex pheromones are involved in their sexual behavior, and on the chemical nature of the secretions and the ultrastructure of the source. Ultrastructurally, these glands include Class I, Class II, and Class III cells, which produce chemical signals in termites with different functions including...

Douglas C Knipple and Wendell L Roelofs

Sex pheromones in the Lepidoptera are multi-component mixtures consisting mostly of olefinic compounds possessing a terminal aldehyde, alcohol, or acetate moiety. Besides functional group differences, the constituents of lepidopteran sex pheromones vary in hydrocarbon chain length and in the specific number, location, and geometry of double bonds. These chemical structures are formed in biosynthetic pathways involving a limited number of enzymatic steps believed to use fatty-acyl thioesters of coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) as substrates. Key reactions are desaturation, limited P-oxidation, and a small number of terminal functional group modifications (reviewed in Chapter 3). A general conclusion drawn from the analyses of many moth pheromone biosynthetic pathways is that the diversity of chemical structures used as lepidopteran sex pheromones has arisen by the evolution of novel substrate specificities and catalytic mechanisms of key biosynthetic enzymes, as well as the temporal sequences in...

Sex pheromone glands in the Pterygota Panorpoidea

The Trichoptera is a panorpoid group whose adults are aerial and immatures are aquatic. A glandular structure on the head and thorax of several species of microcaddisflies (Hydroptilidae), called ante-pteral organs and eversible head organ (Roemhild, 1980), has been speculated to produce chemical signals. However, more behavioral and morphological studies are required to establish the pheromone function of these structures. In female hydropsychid and rhyacophilid caddisflies, including Hydropsyche angustipennis, Rhyacophila nubila and R. faciata, the sex pheromone is produced from a paired exocrine gland that is located between the 4th and 5th sternite (Lofstedt et al., 1994). Interestingly, the sex pheromones of these trichopteran species are chemically similar to the eriocraniid moth (Lofstedt et al., 1994). In addition, female eriocraniid moths and the hydropsychid and rhyacophilid caddisflies produce their sex pheromone from apparently homologous glands. Unfortunately, detailed...

Ada Rafaeli and Russell A Jurenka

Most moth species utilize sex pheromones to attract a conspecific mate. In most cases it is the female moth that releases the pheromone to attract the male. This is usually done during a specific period of the photoperiod and in most moths it occurs during the scotophase. At this time the male is active and if the pheromone is detected it will fly upwind following the odor plume to its source. Female moths release the sex pheromone as the result of a calling behavior in which the pheromone gland is exposed by extruding the ovipositor tip. The success of this relationship depends in part on the female's ability to regulate pheromone production and the synchronization of these events. In many moth species this synchronization is achieved by neuroendocrine mechanisms present in the female that in turn are influenced by various environmental and physiological events such as temperature, photoperiod, host plants, mating, hormones, neurohormones, and neuromodulators. Although PBAN has been...

Classification of sex pheromone gland cells

The Class II cells, ectodermally derived oenocytes, are not in direct contact with the cuticle, and their secretions pass through surrounding Class I cells (Noirot and Quennedey, 1991). Often, they form aggregates with Class I cells, and may exhibit an extracellular reservoir for storage of secretions (Quennedey, 1998). Class II cells exclusively appear to play a role in species that use hydrocarbon sex pheromones. The oenocytes may be associated with the integument, tracheae, or fat bodies, and are involved in cycling hydrocarbon from pools in the hemolymph to the cuticle (Nardi et al., 1996 Ferveur et al., 1997 Schal et al., 1998a or b). For example, targeted expression of the transformer gene in abdominal oenocytes of adult male Drosophila melanogaster induced such males to become pheromonally feminized, which produced a female type of hydrocarbon sex pheromone and elicited courtship behavior by other males (Ferveur et al., 1997). The oenocytes in a nitidulid beetle produce the...

R A Jurenka

Experiments demonstrating the long-range attraction of male moths to female moths were first described in the 1870s and 1880s (Fabre, 1966 Lintner, 1882). The role of volatile chemicals was not realized until later and research continued to define this chemical communication system (see Jacobson, 1972). Many years later, the chemical identification of the first pheromone was made using the sex pheromone glands from thousands of female silkmoths, Bombyx mori (Butenandt et al., 1959 Hecker and Butenandt, 1984). Since then, over 1600 species of moths have been investigated regarding their sex pheromones (Arn, 2002). In the previous edition of this book it was reported that the sex pheromones from about 200 species of moths were identified (Bjostad et al., 1987). This dramatic increase in the number of species is primarily due to the relatively simple nature of most of these sex pheromones. Female moth pheromones are relatively simple structures, consisting of a hydrocarbon chain that...

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