Soap Making Basics Workshop

Guide To Creating Spa Products

The handcrafter's companion is a program designed to help everyone regardless of whether they have ever tried the making soap on their own and failed or whether they are newbies. This program uses step by step guide which contains information easy to read, understand and successfully apply to make your home-made soaps and spa treatments. All the techniques applied in this program have undergone through testing and results have proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. When you enroll in this program, you will not strain in wondering where you will get the raw materials, how to package your product or where to supply the products as all these are already in place. This program has many benefits attached to it some of them being to ensure that your skin glows naturally and you save on the cost you could have otherwise spent on spa treatments. More here...

Guide To Creating Spa Products Summary

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Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This e-book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Formulation Additives Surfactants

The most useful and widely accepted classification is based on the nature of the hydrophilic headgroups. This classification system has universal acceptance and has been found to be practical throughout the surfactant industry. This approach creates four large groups of surfactant structures (i) anionics, (ii) cationics, (iii) amphoterics (zwitter-ionics), and (iv) nonionics. Anionic surfactants carry negative charges and include a large group of surfactants used in pharmaceutical products, such as soaps, sulfates, and sulfonates. Soaps can be prepared in situ by a reaction between a fatty acid and an alkali. Cationic surfactants, carrying positively charged headgroups, are of special pharmaceutical interest since they often possess antimicrobial activity. Examples include quaternary ammonium compounds and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Cationic surfactants should not be used in the same formulation with anionic surfactants because they will interact. Amphoteric surfactants possess...

Classification Of Surfactants

The most commonly encountered anionic surfactants have carboxylate, sulfate, sulfonate, and phosphate polar groups in combination with counterions such as sodium and potassium (for water solubility) or calcium and magnesium (for oil solubility). Sodium and potassium salts of carboxylic acids derived from animal fats or vegetable oils are generically referred to as soaps and constitute the largest single type of surfactant. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates are commonly used in household detergents and a variety of industrial applications. A commonly used surfactant for pharmaceutical application is sodium lauryl sulfate, which is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, the chief of which is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), C12H25SOzT Na+. It is very soluble in water and is used pharmaceutically as a preoperative skin cleaner, having bacteriostatic action against gram-positive bacteria, and also in medicated shampoos. It is a component of emulsifying wax. An alkyl sulfonate useful for the...

Importance of Unilamellar Vesicles

When human jejunal contents obtained during digestion of a lipid meal were ultracentrifuged, three distinct layers were isolated and included a solid pellet at the bottom of the tube on which was layered an intermediate, micellar solution phase topped by an oily layer (101). The oily layer was found to consist primarily of TG, partial glycerides, and FAs the intermediate micellar solution layer consisted of bile salts, FAs, and MGs and the pellet was composed primarily of calcium salts of FAs (soaps). When Porter and Saunders (115) carefully compared the micellar solution phase obtained after ultracentrifugation of intestinal contents to that prepared by passing the unprocessed intestinal contents through a series of filters with progressively smaller pores (the smallest being 100 nm in diameter), mild turbidity was noted, regardless of the method of preparation in addition, these investigators noted the existence of a lipid concentration gradient in these samples. The importance of...

O Cationic Surfactants

How Surfactants Work

Surfactants present several difficulties. Soaps and other anionic detergents inactivate them. All traces of soap must be removed from skin and other surfaces before they are applied. Tissue debris, blood, serum, and pus reduce the effectiveness of the surfactants. Cationic surfactants are also adsorbed on glass, talc, and kaolin to reduce or prevent their action. The bactericidal action of cationic surfactants is slower than that of iodine. Solutions of cationic surfactants intended for disinfecting surgical instruments, gloves, etc. should never be reused because they can harbor infectious microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas and Enterobacter spp.

Semisolid Dosage Forms Ophthalmic Ointments and Gels

The anhydrous petrolatum base may be made more miscible with water through the use of an anhydrous liquid lanolin derivative. Drugs can be incorporated into such a base in aqueous solution if desired. Polyoxyl 40 stearate and polyethylene glycol 300 are used in an anti-infective ointment to solubilize the active principle in the base so that the ointment can be sterilized by aseptic filtration. The cosmetic-type bases, such as the oil-in-water (o w) emulsion bases popular in dermatology, should not be used in the eye, nor should liquid emulsions, owing to the ocular irritation produced by the soaps and surfactants, used to form the emulsion.

Solubilization Processes In The Gastrointestinal Tract

Ionized calcium has been shown to have a significant, positive influence on the lipolysis rate of triglycerides in the presence of BSs, presumably by diminishing the electrostatic repulsion that occurs between enzyme and substrate, thereby facilitating the binding of pancreatic lipase to the TG droplets (12,19,39,40,49,50). In addition, lipolysis is thought to depend on the formation of a catalytically active complex comprised of lipase, mixed micelles, and calcium (49,50). Accumulation of FFA on the surface of the TG droplets during lipolysis will sterically hinder attachment of pancreatic lipase, resulting in a progressive decline in the lipolysis rate (43,50). The FFA chain length has been found to influence the degree of inhibition, with long chain fatty acids (LCFA) being more potent inhibitors of lipolysis than either short or medium chain fatty acids (40). In vivo, solubilization of FFA in BS-PL micelles and subsequent absorption prevents accumulation of FFA in the intestinal...

Unique Physicochemical Systems Used Topically

As one scans the products at the drug counter, one finds an enormous variety of formulation types available for topical therapy or for cosmetic purposes. Solutions are commonly found. They come in packages that allow them to be rubbed on, sprayed on by aerosol and atomizers, painted on, rolled on, swabbed on by premoistened pledgets, and dabbed on from applicators. Assorted medicated soaps are available for a range of purposes. Emulsions for the skin are found in the form of shampoos and as medicated lotions. Powders to soothe and lubricate are placed in sprinkling cans, while others containing drugs are formulated into aerosols to be sprayed on the skin. There are numerous fluid suspensions to be used as makeup or for therapeutic purposes. Clear and opaque gels are also to be found in both cosmetic and therapeutic spheres as are assorted semisolid creams, ointments, and pastes. The physical natures of these latter systems range from soft semisolids that are squeezed out of tubes to...

Surface Effects

Deodorants are also targeted to the skin surface to keep microbial growth in check. Here, they slow or prevent rancidification of the secretions of apocrine glands found in and around the axillae (armpits) and the anogenital regions. Medicated soaps also belong to this family.

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