Treating Social Phobias and Social Anxiety

Shyness And Social Anxiety System

The Shyness and Social Anxiety System is just as its name says. It is an e-book wherein in-depth discussions about the symptoms, causes and treatment for shyness and social anxiety are made. It is then written for individuals whose extreme shyness or social anxiety prevent them from enjoying a full life filled with social interactions among their family, friends and acquaintances in gatherings during holidays, outings and parties. The author Sean Cooper also suffered from shyness and social anxiety disorder so much so that he tried every trick in the book yet to no avail. And then he set out to conquer his own fears by researching into the psychology, principles and practices behind these two debilitating mental health issues. Read more here...

Shyness And Social Anxiety System Summary


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Author: Sean Cooper
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Dissolve Social Anxiety Home Recovery Program

Here are the benefits youll receive when you sign up for the Dissolve Social Anxiety Program: Get to the Root of your Social Anxiety so you can fully recover. Find out why its Not You thats the cause of your Social Anxiety Disorder. Breakdown Beliefs that fuel social anxiety, to start making changes immediately. Discover how emotions are controlling you, and learn how to stop emotions from controlling your life. Create a new belief system and life story that will become an unshakable foundation so social anxiety never controls you, ever again. Develop new Life Skills, not only to conquer social anxiety, but dissolve virtually Any chronic anxiety or depression that comes along with your social phobia. Get Social Confidence in the way that works best for you, not someone else (this is not a cookie cutter approach Im teaching here). Learn and sharpen social skills to have great social interactions with anyone. Program Features: Instant Access to Twelve (12) life-changing modules to build the skill set to finally dissolve your social anxiety. Practical & Experiential Learning guided exercises to help create new awareness, anxiety reduction/elimination, and new possibilities for Self-Confidence And Social Action. Each module has homework to help reinforce the learning, along with practices to support you in your recovery and transforming your life. Customization for Your specific social anxiety issues and recovery goals. Complete with streaming Video Modules, downloadable MP3 Audio files, Pdf handouts (Just your web browser and Adobe Reader are required) Immediately delivery with a personal membership login for the modules (and question submissions if you purchase a higher level package) Read more here...

Dissolve Social Anxiety Home Recovery Program Summary

Contents: Online Course
Author: David Hamilton
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Social Anxiety Solutions Social Confidence System

Learn Secrets To: Annihilate All Social Anxiety Without Doing Scary Exposures. Be Yourself And Feel Naturally Confident In All Social Situations. Enjoy Social Situations And Build Satisfying Relationships And Friendships. By Going Through The Scs Youll Be Able To Feel better and get results Fast because we use the most effective and efficient techniques from the best therapies and methods out there put on steroids by combining them with the most powerful technique of them all; Eft. Broaden your comfort zone, raise your confidence, and eliminate your social anxiety in the most comfortable, yet Most Effective and Efficient way possible. Feel comfortable and at ease in all social situations, actually having fun in them. Overcome excessive negative emotions: Neutralize shame and embarrassment and stop blushing, panicking and sweating. Release any upset, anxiety or shame related to certain key negative people from your past so you wont fear running into these people any longer because you know you can calmly face them. Destroy your fear of rejection, feel comfortable when you are the center of attention and calmly deal with criticism. Read more here...

Social Anxiety Solutions Social Confidence System Summary

Contents: 20 EFT Tapping Videos, 50 EFT Audios, 50 Articles
Creator: Sebastiaan van der Schrier
Official Website:
Price: $197.00

Social Anxiety Disorder

Several studies have established the efficacy of sertraline in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia). In one of the earliest studies, sertraline treatment (at flexible doses of 50-100 mg day) showed a statistically significant improvement compared with placebo, as measured by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) (Katzelnick et al. 1995). A large double-blind, placebo-controlled study followed more than 200 Canadian outpatients with generalized social phobia for 20 weeks, measuring response on CGI-I scores and mean reductions on the social phobia subscale of the Marks Fear Questionnaire and the Brief Social Phobia scale (Van Ameringen et al. 2001). Fifty-three percent of patients treated with sertraline, compared with only 29 of patients receiving placebo, were either much or very much improved by the study's end, as measured by CGI-I scores. Statistically significant changes favoring sertraline were seen on the other two study measures as well....

Historical Overview Introduction to the Dopamine Receptors

Abstract A long-term search for the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs was motivated by a search for the cause of schizophrenia. The research between 1963 and 1975 led to the discovery of the antipsychotic receptor, now known as the dopamine D2 receptor, the target for all antipsychotic medications. There are now five known dopamine receptors, all cloned. Although no appropriate animal model or brain biomarker exists for schizophrenia, it is known that the many factors and genes associated with schizophrenia invariably elevate the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor or D2High by 100-900 in animals, resulting in dopamine supersensitivity. These factors include brain lesions sensitization by amphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, or corticosterone birth injury social isolation and more than 15 gene deletions in the pathways for the neurotransmission mediated by receptors for glutamate (NMDA), dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine. The elevation of D2High receptors...

Behavioral Tests for Autistic Like Aberrations in Rodents

Impairment in social interaction is a critical component for such models. Rodents are highly social animals displaying a plethora of different social behaviors. The propensity of animals to spend time with conspecific rather than non-social novel objects shall be used as one of the measures. This can be best done in an automated three-chambered apparatus in which social interactions, social recognition, and social memory can also be scored (Crawley 2007). Measures of the level of social approach should be accompanied by more specific analyses of reciprocal social interactions, including, nose-to-nose contacts, anogenital inspections, aggression, escape behavior, nesting patterns, juvenile rough and tumble play, etc. 2. Impairments in social communication may be me-aured in rodents using olfactory and auditory communication tasks. Different kinds of ultrasonic vocalizations can be elicited in rodents, starting from separation calls in pups isolated from their mothers, to frequency...

Genetically Induced Models

A second approach uses monogenic aberrations, such as loss of Fmrl or methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (Mecp2) function, that underlie syndromes associated with autistic-like behavior. The Fmrl-null mice display increased levels of social anxiety, reduced social interaction, hyperactivity, and deficits in spatial and reversal learning. Interestingly, exposure to an enriched environment can reverse some behavioral deficits in this model. The Mecp2-null mice show deficits in social behavior, hypoactivity, impaired learning and memory, and increased anxiety.

Processes In Chronic Painrelated Disability And Suffering

When pain occurs, the pain sufferer naturally will try to avoid it. When chronic pain leads to painful emotions, memories, and other unwanted experiences (e.g. feelings and thoughts that come with facing unwelcome changes in life or from challenging social situations), the pain sufferer will naturally attempt to avoid these as well. This is normal human behavior. This process, called experiential avoidance,'' is proposed as the source of much of human behavior disturbance and suffering.65 The problem with experiential avoidance is that attempting to avoid private experiences, including psychological experiences that come from one's personal history, is often not possible, often brings the person, paradoxically, in contact with the material they are attempting to avoid, and can be extremely restricting of a person's functioning. If one is unwilling to feel painful or unwanted feelings, one will be unable to do any activity that brings one in contact with those feelings. Numerous...

Characterization Of Depressive And Anxiety Disorders

The primary clinical manifestations of major depression are significant depression of mood and impairment of function. Some features of depressive disorders overlap those of the anxiety disorders, including panic-agoraphobia syndrome, severe phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Extremes of mood also may be associated with psychosis, as manifested by disordered or delusional thinking and perceptions that often are congruent with the predominant mood. Conversely, secondary changes in mood may be associated with psychotic disorders. This overlap of disorders can lead to errors in diagnosis and suboptimal treatment. Mood and anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses, each affecting up to 10 of the general population at some time in their lives.

Key Learning Points

The aims of CBT are to increase physical and occupational activity and to decrease disability and emotional distress through behavioral strategies for managing activity and social interactions, and cognitive strategies to address the subjective and emotional experience of chronic pain.

Current Concepts and State of Knowledge

The first ''ethopharmacological'' studies were performed in the early 1960s of the last century (Chance and coworkers) by scientists coming from an ethological background. This group did most of their groundbreaking work on social behavior in rodents and they were the first to describe ethograms of isolated behaviors and social interactions (Grant and Mackintosh 1963). An ethogram is a list of all acts and postures of an animal in a certain environmental situation. Ethopharmacology has particularly blossomed in the area of social interactions and aggression research probably due to the availability of ethologically trained scientists, the rich agonistic repertoire of rodents, and the translational aspects of such research into human biomedical (psychiatric) problems (Miczek et al. 1994).

Is D2High the Unifying Mechanism for Schizophrenia

Although no appropriate animal model or brain biomarker exists for schizophrenia, it is known that the many factors and genes associated with schizophrenia invariably elevate dopamine D2High receptors by 100-900 in animals, resulting in dopamine supersensitivity. These factors include brain lesions sensitization by amphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, or corticos-terone birth injury social isolation and more than 15 gene deletions in the pathways for the neurotransmission mediated by receptors for glutamate (NMDA), dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine. A list of these psychosis-precipitating factors is given in Table 1.2, along with the magnitude of the elevations that these factors elicit in the proportion of D2High receptors in the striata of mice or rats. The total density of D2 generally does not change.

Drug Treatments For Autism

Despite many trials to identify drugs that affect social interactions, no medication has been shown to unambiguously modify the core or associated symptoms in individuals with autism. Recent reviews describe drug treatment strategies for various associated symptoms commonly found in autism (Hollander et al., 2003). For instance, a-adrenergic agents, P- blockers and typical and atypical antipsychotic agents are prescribed to decrease aggressive behaviours. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used for treatment of the anxiety or for stereotypes and repetitive behaviours. Dopamine reuptake blocking agents, stimulants and a-adrenergic agents are used for hyperactive patients, and finally antidepressants, anticonvulsants and melatonin have shown some benefits for sleep disorders. However, none of these treatments can definitely improve the severe symptoms in autistic patients and it is some times necessary to try several of them before to observe a slight effect. Behavioural...

Adaptive And Maladaptive Aspects Of Immunologic Allyinduced Depression

It is also possible that many of the depressive symptoms associated with disease and immune activation are not adaptive in terms of the individual rather, they are adaptive for the population. Sociobiologists argue that complex social behaviors may be selected for, in the course of evolution, even though the effect of the behavior on its bearer is to reduce its own personal fitness (Wilson, 1975). For example, an animal that utters a loud alarm call is drawing attention to itself, increasing the likelihood that it will be captured by the predator. Theories of inclusive fitness and kin selection provide convincing evidence for the adaptive value of such altruistic behaviors (Wilson, 1975). A similar phenomenon may explain the behavioral effects of infectious diseases, because such diseases may be transmitted from the individual to its kins and family members, thus reducing the individual's inclusive fitness (i.e., the net genetic representation in succeeding generations, including...

History And Discovery

Shortly after the introduction of fluoxetine into the U.S. market in 1988, a marked increase in research led to the development of other SRIs, which ultimately proved effective in a wide array of psychiatric disorders. Paroxetine was the third SRI approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of depression. Since then, it has also attained approval by the FDA for the treatment of all five DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) anxiety disorders panic disorder, OCD, PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and GAD. Paroxetine is available in 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-mg tablets and in suspension form. A controlled-release (CR) formulation is available in 12.5-, 25-, and 37.5-mg tablets. It exhibits equal or better efficacy than the paroxetine immediate-release (IR) formulation, as well as clear advantages in tolerability (Golden et al. 2002).

Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is defined by excessive and uncontrollable worry about a number of life events or activities for least 6 month, accompanied by at least 3 of 6 associated symptoms of negative affect or tension, such as restlessness, fatigability, concentration difficulties, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance. Relative to other anxiety and mood disorders, GAD is more likely to show a gradual onset and or life-long history of symptoms. While early ages of onset are common, the syndrome itself may emerge only later in life and a considerable number of patients with GAD report an onset in adulthood that is usually in response to psychosocial and emotional stress. Research has consistently shown that GAD is associated with high comorbidity rates for other psychiatric disorders, including panic disorder, major depression, dysthymia, social phobia, and specific phobia (Kendler et al. 1992a Kendler et al. 1995a Roy et al. 1995 Skre et al. 1994 Weissman...

Trace Amine Associated Receptors

The teleost specific sub-class III shows a very pronounced and remarkable expansion of TAAR isoforms 9,12 , with upwards of 75 of teleost TAAR belonging to sub-class III 9 . For example, the zebrafish genome contains at least 97 15 and possibly up to 119 12 TAAR genes, of which between 57 and 112 9,12,15 are thought to be functional there are 48-64 TAAR genes in the stickleback genome, of which at least 48 appear to be functional 9,12 . This compares to the 15 functional genes plus one pseudogene seen in the mouse genome 6,9,12 . The opossum genome contains the greatest number of genes of any mammalian species so far studied with 19-22 functional TAAR and 3 possible pseudogenes 9,12,16 . The human genome consists of 6 functional TAAR with an additional 3 pseudogenes 6,9 , although others only reported 5 functional TAAR 11,12 . Many of the additional TAAR genes found in teleosts appear to be species specific 9,17 , and it has been hypothesized that these may form the basis of...

Paroxetine Introduction

Paroxetine (Paxil) is classified as one of the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) because of its potent inhibition of presynaptic serotonin (5-HT) uptake. It is also a relatively potent norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor, particularly at higher doses, leading some to argue for its inclusion in the growing class of acknowledged dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Since its approval for the treatment of depression, paroxetine has been demonstrated to be effective and has been approved for a broad spectrum of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, studies have demonstrated the efficacy of paroxetine in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), postmenopausal hot flashes, and child and adolescent OCD and social anxiety disorder. Paroxetine is still one of the most prescribed antidepressant medications in the...

HSPs and Autoimmunity in Atherogenesis

Psychological factors, such as stress are known to contribute to CVD risk 210 . Lewthwaite et al. 211 have reported an inverse association between serum HSP60 concentrations, social isolation, low socioeconomic status, and psychological distress, a finding that was confirmed in a larger cohort 202 .

Moderators Of The Depressionimmune Link

Both life stress and depression have been associated with similar changes of immune measures (Herbert & Cohen, 1993a and b), and it is possible that these two conditions together might interact and influence immunity more than the presence of life stress or depression alone. Depressed subjects are more likely to experience severe life events during their depressive episode due in part to the functional impairments associated with depression (Brown, Harris, & Hepworth, 1994). For example, a depressive episode may be associated with deterioration in work performance such that the person loses his her job. Likewise, impairment in social interactions during depression may affect a spousal relationship leading to threatened divorce or separation. To our knowledge, the joint contribution of threatening life events and depression on immune function has only preliminarily been examined in one study.

Citalopram Definition

Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is commonly used in the treatment of depression and some of the more severe anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder). As with other SSRIs, the most troublesome side effect of citalopram is sexual dysfunction (dysorgas-mia and erectile dysfunction) mild side effects include drowsiness, headache, and nausea. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of racemic citalopram, is also marketed as an antidepressant.

Pharmacotherapy Of Anxiety

The antihistamine hydroxyzine is an effective antianxiety agent, but only at doses ( 400 mg day) that produce marked sedation (see Chapter 24). Propranolol and metoprolol, lipophilic b adrenergic receptor antagonists that enter the CNS, can reduce the autonomic symptoms (nervousness and muscle tremor) associated with specific situational or social phobias but do not appear to be effective in generalized anxiety or panic disorder (see Chapter 10). Similarly, other antiadrener-gic agents, including clonidine, may modify autonomic expression of anxiety but are not demonstrably useful in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders. Antidepressants tend to provide a more sustained and continuous improvement of the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder than do the stimulants and do not induce tics or other abnormal movements sometimes associated with stimulants. Indeed, desipramine and nortriptyline may effectively treat tic disorders, either in association with the use of...


Social anxiety disorder) Adjustment disorders Avoidant personality disorder Another guideline emanating from the Psychophar-macology Unit at the University of Bristol in 1995 advises that patients with panic, generalized, or social anxiety disorder be started on an SSRI SNRI and given adjunct BZ for 3-4 weeks. If the SSRI SNRI turns out to be ineffective, BZs are used as single therapy after careful discussion with the patient. BZs are also used to alleviate acute (trauma-induced) anxiety on the grounds that it would by unethical to deny patients with severe anxiety the benefits of immediate relief.


One physician should institute and monitor the treatment. Goals and expectations (physician and patient) should be identified and the end points clearly stated. Goals may include restoration of function, improvement in the activities of daily living, return to work, psychological stability, improved family and social interactions, decreased use of healthcare resources, including use of other analgesics. Once identified, these goals could be incorporated into an individualized consent form.10

Social Loss

Life events that signify loss or departure from the social network are risk factors for the development of hypercortisolism and depression in humans (Biondi and Picardi 1996 Kendler et al. 2002). A model of social loss-induced hypercortisolism based on species-typical patterns of social organization has been developed in squirrel monkeys (Parker et al. 2003). In their natural environment, squirrel monkeys live in sexually segregated groups. Adult males and females within a group spend most of their time with same-sex companions, and social interactions between the sexes are limited to mating activities (Lyons et al. 1992). When adults are separated from same-sex companions, they respond with increased cortisol levels that frequently persist for several weeks (Lyons and Levine 1994 Lyons

Early Life Stress

Hippocampal volumes did not differ with respect to prior postnatal stress versus no-stress conditions in squirrel monkeys (Lyons et al. 2001). Rhesus monkeys raised in social isolation do not show hippocampal atrophy despite striking changes in other brain systems and associated behavior (Sanchez et al. 1998). In keeping with studies of humans (Sullivan et al. 2001 van Erp et al. 2004), however, significant heritabilities were discerned by paternal half-sibling analysis of squirrel monkey hippocampal volumes (Lyons et al. 2001). These and related findings suggest that the morphology of specific brain regions is determined in part by genes (Lyons 2002). Moreover, we found that small hippocampal volumes predicted increased stress levels of ACTH after pretreatment with saline or hydrocortisone (Lyons et al. 2007). Small hippocampal volumes may be a risk factor for, and not just an effect of, impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. Similar...

Anxiety Disorders

Studies of the HPA axis in social phobia have not found evidence of baseline hyperactivity by urinary free cortisol (Uhde et al. 1994), although few challenges other than a social speaking task have been used. Public speaking challenges in anxiety disorders do not support an exaggerated ACTH or cortisol response to this stressor (Gerra et al. 2000 Levin et al. 1993 Martel et al. 1999). A few studies in children with anxiety disorders have also examined the HPA axis. Children with anxiety disorders coming in for a CO2 challenge demonstrated elevated basal cortisol in those who panicked in response to CO2, suggesting that increased reactivity to a threatening situation (i.e., anticipation of a procedure that would cause discomfort) was linked to activation of the HPA axis (Coplan et al. 2002). This interpretation is further supported by an extremely large study of basal 24-hour cortisol in normal children and children with either anxiety disorders or major depression, which found lower...


(121, 122), panic disorder (123), social phobia (124-126), eating disorders (127), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (128), and GAD (129). To summarize, the SSRI antidepressants remain the first-line treatment for major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, PTSD, and bulimia. They have a favorable side effect profile as compared to older antidepressants, better patient tolerability, ease


When anxiety symptoms occur in response to a specific environmental situation, the term phobia is used. Most people encountered in a pain clinic who have phobic disorders will have had such disorders beforehand. However, a phobia may develop because of the experience of the event leading to the pain, e.g. travel phobia following a road traffic accident.42 The condition known as social phobia,'' in which sufferers feel anxious in social situations and avoid such engagements, has been found to be over-represented in disabled workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain.43

Chronic Stress

In the original chronic stress model, it was reported that sustained elevations in glucocorticoid levels were restored to normal by antidepressants (Katz and Sibel 1982 Katz et al. 1981). These findings are of interest because patients with major depression often present with increased levels of the glucocorticoid stress hormone cortisol (see Chapter 45, Neurobiology of Mood Disorders ). In rodents, however, chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels are difficult to maintain (Rivier and Vale 1987 E. A. Young and Akil 1985), and rodent models often rely on manipulations that differ from the stressors that induce or exacerbate depression in humans. An intriguing exception is the visible burrow model, which enables small groups of rats to produce natural stress-engendering social interactions well suited for behavioral, neural, and hormonal investigations of stress pathophysiology (Blanchard et al. 1995).

SSRIs History

As clinical experience with SSRIs has grown, it has become apparent that they have their own share of adverse effects. Also, the equivalence of SSRIs' efficacy to TCAs' has been challenged, and still remains a matter of some controversy. Even with these concerns, SSRIs are widely used and are effective in a wide range of psychiatric disorders other than depression, such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, bulimia nervosa, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), premenstrual dysphoric syndrome (PMDS), dysthymia, and seasonal affective disorder. SSRIs are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in America and worldwide (32).


The initial suggestion that the CCK system might be involved in anxiety came from experiments of Bradwejn and de Montigny (1984) showing that benzodiazepine receptor agonists could attenuate CCK induced excitation of rat hippocampal neurones. Subsequent clinical studies demonstrated that bolus injections of the CCK2 receptor agonist CCK4 or pentagastrin provoke panic attacks in patients with panic disorders (Bradwejn et al. 1991, 1992). Recent investigations have revealed that the panicogenic effects of CCK2 receptor agonists are not limited to patients with panic disorder, because individuals with social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder also exhibit an augmented behavioural response to these ligands (Le Melledo et al. 1995 De Leeuw et al. 1996 van Vliet et al. 1997). Interestingly, a significant association exists between panic disorder and polymorphism of the CCK2 receptor gene (Kennedy et al. 1999). The...

Confidence and Social Supremacy

Confidence and Social Supremacy

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