How to Naturally Cure a Sore Throat in One Day
Perioperative local anaesthetic infiltration of the tonsillar bed was not shown to improve postoperative pain control after tonsillectomy in any trial that was included in a systematic review.11 However, this conclusion was based on a few studies of small size and needs to be confirmed with further trials (Table 5.1). Local anaesthetic infiltration for tonsillectomy
There are no absolute contraindications to using a medication while a child is treated with the KD (see Appendix A). Children on the KD will have the normal myriad childhood diseases (otitis media, strep throat, etc.), which will require treatment with antibiotics and other medicines. However, the need for absolute control over the daily carbohydrate intake to maintain maximal ketosis makes these outside drugs the KD team's nightmare. The US Food and Drug Administration does not require the pharmaceutical industry to reveal the content of carbohydrates used as fillers in their medications. In addition, the composition of these fillers is frequently changed. The success of any KD program, therefore, depends on support from pharmacists and their ability to obtain reliable information about carbohydrate contents from pharmaceutical manufac
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the major sequela of rheumatic fever (RF) and develops 4-8 weeks after the first acute RF (ARF) episode in children or teenagers (3-19 years old). The disease results from autoimmune reactions triggered by an untreated S. pyogenes throat infection that leads to severe valvular damage in individuals who present genetic susceptibility. Recurrences of ARF play an important role in the worsening of valvular lesions due to high number of inflammatory cells and soluble mediators as well as the reactivation of autoreactive T cells 1,2 .
Tonsillectomy is often the choice as a consequence of obstruction of the upper airway, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, growth delay, poor school performance, feeding difficulties, and other associated clinical features (Vandenberg and Heatley, 1997). The failure of the antibiotic treatment in tonsillitis produced by susceptible organism (Brook, 2001), even though it can be thought of a consequence of antibiotic resistance (Flemming et al., 2007), might be due to the presence of biofilms that can, therefore, be considered as an etiologic factor, among others. The knowledge about biofilms existence is sustaining a new concept to explain chronic infections (Vlastarakos et al., 2007). Hence, otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structures of the head and neck. Otolaryngologic diseases represent one of the most frequent problems in children. Among them,...
Obviously, adaptive immune-mediated depression-like syndrome should be transient and restricted to the time period in which the organism is sick. Indeed, many factors have been documented to tightly regulate and limit the behavioral, neural and neuroendocrine effects of cytokines, including glucocorticoids, vasopressin, and a-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) (Dantzer et al., 1996). Disruption of these regulatory factors might lead to impairment in shutting off the immune and neural mechanisms underlying sickness behavior, thus resulting in maladaptive depressive symptomatology. This process may underlie the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and the Post-Viral Fatigue Syndrome (PVFS). Both syndromes are associated with psychological changes that persist long after recuperation from viral infection (Komaroff, Fagioli, Geiger, Doolittle, Lee, Kornish, Gleit, & Guerriero, 1996). They are mainly characterized by fatigue, which reduces patients' level of everyday activity by at least 50...
The incidence and severity of GI adverse effects associated with dirithromycin are similar to those seen with oral erythromycin. Preliminary studies indicate that dirithromycin and erythromycyclamine do not interact significantly with cy-tochrome P450 oxygenases. Thus, the likelihood of interference in the oxidative metabolism of drugs such as phenytoin, theophylline, and cyclosporine by these enzymes may be less with dirithromycin than with erythromycin. Dirithromycin is recommended as an alternative to erythromycin for the treatment of bacterial infections of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, such as pharyngitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia, and for bacterial infections of other soft tissues and the skin. The once-daily dosing schedule for dirithromycin is advantageous in terms of better patient compliance. Its place in therapy remains to be fully assessed.216
Summary IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis (infection of the kidney glomeruli) worldwide and was once equated with benign recurrent hematuria (blood in the urine). This article reviews the patient care management of IgA nephropathy. Of the patient population with IgA nephropathy, 15 to 30 percent progress to end stage renal failure after 20 years of clinical manifestations. Because the pathogenesis remains enigmatic, therapy to slow disease progression cannot be disease specific. Control of blood pressure remains the cornerstone of treatment, as for patients with other types of kidney disease. Several approaches to treatment have generated increasing interest in the last few years, including angiotensin inhibition, glucocorticoids, fish oil, cyclophosphamide, tonsillectomy, and mycophenolate mofetil. For patients reaching end stage renal failure, recurrent disease after transplantation can be a clinically important problem (even in light...
Other Adverse Effects Dysgeusia, an alteration in or loss of taste, can occur. It may be more frequent with captopril and is reversible. Neutropenia is a rare but serious side effect of ACE inhibitors it occurs predominantly in hypertensive patients with collagen-vascular or renal parenchymal disease. If the serum creatinine concentration is 2 mg dL or greater, the dose of ACE inhibitor should be kept low, and the patient should be counseled to seek medical evaluation if symptoms (e.g., sore throat, fever) develop. Glycosuria in the absence of hyperglycemia is an exceedingly rare and reversible side effect whose mechanism is unknown. Hepatotoxicity, usually of the cholestatic variety, also is exceedingly rare and reversible. The mechanism again is unknown.
The most common early signs of chronic arsenic poisoning are muscle weakness and aching, skin pigmentation (especially of the neck, eyelids, nipples, and axillae), hyperkeratosis, and edema. GI involvement is less prominent in long-term exposures. Other signs and symptoms that should arouse suspicion of arsenic poisoning include garlic odor of the breath and perspiration, excessive salivation and sweating, stomatitis, generalized itching, sore throat, coryza, lacrimation, numbness, burning or tingling of the extremities, dermatitis, vitiligo, and alopecia. Poisoning may begin insidiously with symptoms of weakness, languor, anorexia, occasional nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea or constipation. Subsequent symptoms may simulate acute coryza. Dermatitis and keratosis of the palms and soles are common features. Mee's lines are found characteristically in the fingernails (white transverse lines of deposited arsenic that usually appear 6 weeks after exposure). Desquamation and scaling of...
The Chinese medicine chan su is prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toads (Bufo melanostictus Schneider and Bufo bufo gargarzinas Gantor). Chan su is also a major component of traditional Chinese medicines lu-shen-wan and kyushin.36 These medicines are used for the treatment of tonsillitis, sore throat, furuncle, palpitations, etc., because of their anesthetic and antibiotic action. Chan su, given in small doses, also stimulates myocardial contraction, has an anti-inflammatory effect and is analgesic. The cardiotonic effect of chan su is due to its major bufadienolides such as bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin.37 At high dosages, chan su causes cardiac arrhythmia, breathlessness, convulsion and coma. Death of a Chinese woman after ingestion of Chinese herbal tea containing chan su has been reported.28 Structural similarity between bufadieno-lides and digoxin accounts for the digoxin-like immunoreactivity of chan su. Fushimi and...
Several human clinical studies have suggested that peripherally applied ketamine can have analgesic effects. For example, when the peritonsillar area is infiltrated with ketamine prior to tonsillectomy, lower pain scores are recorded than when placebo is used. When compared to administration of a similar dose of ketamine intravenously, similar pain reductions are seen, but significantly less sedation is encountered when the drug is injected into the peritonsillar region than when given intravenously. Similarly, when ketamine is injected subcutaneously prior to circumcision, significantly less pain is experienced than when saline is injected. Of course, this may be a result of systemic uptake of the agent or represent an effect generated by one of the other modes of action of ketamine rather than its glutamate receptor effect.
Features include photophobia, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, diplopia and focal sensory changes. While irritability and altered mental state may be present, these symptoms are more often encountered in encephalitis. Encephalitis may appear clinically similar to aseptic meningitis with a few important distinctions. Patients with encephalitis develop insomnia, lethargy, alterations in consciousness, seizures, aphasia and hemiplegia. Imaging may show mild brain swelling or meningeal enhancement, but, more often, imaging is unremarkable.
Patients receiving aminosalicylates should be advised to report any unexplained bleeding, bruising, purpura, sore throat, fever or malaise that occurs during treatment. A blood count should be performed and the drug stopped immediately if there is suspicion of a blood dyscrasia.
Inalia chebula Retz. var. tomentella Kurt. (Fam. Combretaceae). Action To check diarrhea and chronic j cough, and to soothe the sore throat. Indications Protracted diarrhea with heroatochezia and prolapse of the rectum i i, chronic cough with sore throat and hoarse) ness of voice. Dosage 3 9g.
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes following an untreated throat infection in susceptible children. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD), the most serious complication, occurs in 30-45 of RF patients and leads to chronic valvular lesions. Here, we focus on the genes that confer susceptibility for developing this disease. Molecular mimicry mediates the cross-reactions between streptococcal antigens and human proteins. Several autoantigens have been identified, including
Tangier disease, a disorder of lipoprotein transport, can be associated with neuropathy with marked loss of pain sensation. Neuropathy can be transient, can be relapsing and asymmetrical, or can be slowly progressing and symmetrical with onset in upper or lower limbs. It may simulate syringomyelia, especially when the onset is in the upper limbs. Studies have shown than Tangier disease is associated with lancinating pains.62 Other features that may be associated are corneal opacities, enlarged tonsils, and hepatosplenomegaly. Biochemical abnormalities include hypocholesterolemia and normal or elevated triacylglycerol levels. Normal or elevated triacylglycerol levels help in distinguishing this condition from abetali-poproteinemia and hypobetalipoproteinemia. Nerve biopsy reveals loss of small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.
The use of dexamethasone as an antiemetic in the postoperative phase is well described. In addition, it is widely accepted that use of corticosteroids can reduce the pain after tonsillectomy and tooth extraction. Others report that when dexamethasone is used intravenously it can not only reduce the nausea often experienced after intrathecal opioid use but also improve the quality of pain relief produced by that intrathecal opioid. Conversely, when corticosteroid is used along with a local anesthetic in a nerve block for postoperative pain, the duration and quality of pain relief produced is no different from that produced by the nerve block alone. This contrasts to the clinical impression that addition of corticosteroid to local anesthetic for use in a nerve block for many chronic pain conditions does have a significant effect on the quality and duration of the relief provided by that intervention.
Figure 49-1 provides a schematic diagram of the replicative cycle of a DNA virus (A) and an RNA virus (B). DNA viruses include poxviruses (smallpox), herpesviruses (chickenpox, shingles, oral and genital herpes), adenoviruses (conjunctivitis, sore throat), hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus HBV ), and papillomaviruses (warts). Typically, DNA viruses enter the host cell nucleus, where the viral DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) by host cell polymerase and mRNA is translated into virus-specific proteins.
Dyclonine hydrochloride (dyclone) has a rapid onset of action and duration of effect comparable to that of procaine. It is absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes. Marketing of dyclonine solutions for clinical use has been discontinued in the U.S. Dyclonine is an active ingredient of OTC medications including sore throat lozenges (sucrets, others), a gel for cold sores (tanac), and a 0.75 solution (skin shield) to protect against contact dermatitis.
Boron (as boron oxide and boric acid dusts) has been shown to cause irritation of the upper respiratory tract in humans. Based on a medical questionnaire from 113 workers (96 males, 4 females) employed in the borax industry for an average of 11 years, mean exposures of 4.1 mg m to boron oxide and boric acid dusts were associated with dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, sore throat, and productive cough (Garabrant et al. 1984). While the authors reported differences between the test and control groups in age and numbers of smokers, no differences in symptoms were observed. Similarly, symptoms of acute respiratory irritation were related to exposures to borax dust at concentrations of 4 mg m or more in a cross- sectional study of 629 borax workers actively employed for 11.4 years (Garabrant et al. 1985). Decreases in the forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were seen among smokers who had cumulative borax exposures of 80 mg m or greater but were not seen among less...