Sternocleidomastoid Ebook

Forward Head Posture Fix

This ebook guide teaches you the muscles that you need to work to make sure that you have excellent posture all day long, and that you will have the benefits that go along with good posture. You will be able to get rid of many headaches, brain fog, and aching neck muscles by using this workout. There is no need to look old! Stooping is the sign of old age Even if you are an older person you too can work out this muscle group to give you the powerful posture of a much younger person! This bad posture that we are correcting is called texting neck. It comes when you look down at something (like a book or your phone) too often, which puts a huge strain on your neck. You will learn how to fix this problem and help your neck to be in better shape today. Your neck is supposed to remain vertical; we can help put it back where it goes to make sure that you stay healthy for years to come. Read more...

Forward Head Posture Fix Summary


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Author: Mike Westerdal
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Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block

Probe is inclined somewhat caudad to produce an ultrasound beam that cuts across the roots of the brachial plexus that inclines inferiorly and anteriorly from their origin at the transverse processes. The most recognizable structure anteriorly is the pulsatile common carotid artery (CA) and its companion internal jugular (IJ) vein usually anterior and lateral to the carotid. The IJ may be collapsed or vary in diameter with respiration. The sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is a characteristic muscular structure (hypoechoic with striations) just deep to the subcutaneous layer with a tapered posterior edge, and the anterior and middle scalene muscles are deep to the SCM and posterior to the CA. The cervical roots of C5 through C7 are oligofascicular and hypoechoic round or oval structures which become apparent with slight changes in the caudad inclination of the probe or with movement of the probe in the cephalad or caudad direction (Fig. 21.5b). Figure 21.5b Interscalene block....

Alterations in General Behavior

In our laboratory, we use the following protocol. For examination of behavioral drug effects, the animals are removed from their home cages and placed alone in plastic cages (590 x 380 x 190 mm high) without sawdust flooring or grid covers, the cages being placed on a table. The animals are continuously observed for alterations in behavior for up to 3 h after intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or drug. For comparative evaluation of experiments with different drugs, behavioral alterations determined at suitable time points (depending on time of peak effect and duration of action) after drug administration can be scored (see below). For all observations, rigorous observational protocols are used, using a ranked intensity scale for each altered behavior 0, absent 1, equivocal 2, present and 3, intense. Examples for drug-induced behavioral alterations scored in this respect include hyperlocomotion, stereotyped behaviors, such as head weaving (swaying movements of the head and upper...

Impact of Psychoactive Drugs Social Behavior

Drug effects in animals are typically studied to predict how the drugs may affect human behavior and the relevance of studying drug effects on social behavior in animals such as rats, mice, and monkeys may seem rather distant to the complexity of human social behavior and structure. However, humans are also a social species that has a highly hierarchical organization and are very territorial, and while the exact details will differ between species, the more general responses can be comparable. We often view human behavior to be fundamentally different from animals, but a very obvious example of human territorial behavior is how we define countries and borders and the vigor with which we defend our territory. Another more mundane example is how we feel if someone sits in our chair'' in a classroom. The social hierarchy is similarly very obvious in many work situations and when observing an interaction between two individuals with different status in an organization from body posture...

Case 2 Gareth Suneil Ramessur Mbbs Bsc Hons FRCA DipHEP

During your session with Gareth he reveals that he is a former intravenous drug abuser. Your examination reveals tenderness over the lower paracervical regions and trigger points of trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles on the right side. Gareth explains that his pain is a constant and dull ache and his sleep is disturbed due to the pain. He also mentions that there is an ongoing claim for compensation from the insurance company. You offer to inject the trigger points and perform a cervical facet joint injection. Gareth accepts this and undergoes the treatment.

HDACs in Skeletal Muscle Remodeling and Neuromuscular Disease

Abstract Skeletal muscle is made of heterogeneous myofibers with different contractile and metabolic properties. The diverse functionality of myofibers enables skeletal muscle to carry out different tasks from maintaining body posture to performing active movements. In addition to motility, skeletal muscle, which constitutes 40 of body mass, is also a key target of insulin action and performs an essential function in glucose metabolism. Adult skeletal muscle is a highly adaptive organ system and can undergo specific changes in contractile and metabolic properties to meet different functional demands. This plasticity of myofibers reflects a highly

Mechanics of breathing

Deeper inspirations are achieved by more forceful contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles. Furthermore, accessory inspira-tory muscles, including the scalenus and sternocleidomastoid muscles, contribute to this process. Located mainly in the neck, these muscles raise the sternum and elevate the first two ribs. As a result, the upper portion of the thoracic cavity is enlarged.

Supraclavicular Block

Landmarks include sternocleidomastoid m., anterior and middle scalene m., clavicle, first rib, and subclavian artery (Fig. 20.4a, b). In the classic approach, the patient is positioned supine or semi-sitting with their head turned away from the side to be blocked. The arms are to remain relaxed at the patient's side. The brachial plexus is approached with the clavicle first identified and the midpoint marked (Fig. 20.4a). Following skin cleansing and local Figure 20.4 (a) and (b) Landmarks for the supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus. (a) Line 1 sternal notch and line 2 sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. Line 3 identifies the clavicle. Single medial arrow indicates the lateral portion of the SCM muscle attachment to the clavicle. Parallel arrow (pointing cephalad) is approximately one-thumb width (2.5 cm) lateral to the medial arrow and provides a margin of safety away from the pleura dome. (b) Line 1 sternal notch, line 2 sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, and line 3 the...

Sickness Behaviors

In concert with immunological changes, pathogens promote several adaptive behavioral styles. Yet, the biological or behavioral strategies deployed may have both immediate and protracted adverse consequences, including increased vulnerability to psychological disturbances. Activation of the immune system (e.g., by bacterial endotoxins) or direct administration of products of an activated immune system (e.g., IL-ip, IL-6, and TNFa) induce an array of behavioral symptoms referred to as sickness behavior (Kent, Bluthe, Kelley, & Dantzer, 1992). As discussed in other chapters of this volume, in addition to fever and curled body posture, systemic IL-lp and TNFa provoke anorexia, increased sleep, and reduced locomotor activity, each of which minimizes energy expenditure and sustains body temperature (Bluthe, Dantzer, & Kelley, 1989 Dantzer et al., 1996 Elmquist, Scammell, & Saper, 1997 Hellerstein, Meydani, Meydani, Wu, & Dinarello, 1989 Holden & Pakula, 1996 Kent, Rodriguez, Kelley, &...

Neck Pain

Neck pain can arise from the cervical spine and surrounding anatomical structures. These structures include the facet or zygapophysial joints, the intervertebral disks, the vertebral bodies, the anterior and posterior ligaments, the prevertebral muscles, and the posterior neck muscles. Serious but rare causes of neck pain include tumors (vertebral body, spinal cord) and infection (e.g., epidural abscess, meningitis, discitis, and osteomyelitis). Abnormal neurological findings associated with neck pain can be found in patients with cervical radiculopathy, cervical myelopathy, spinal cord tumor, and thoracic outlet syndrome (Carette 2005).


Considerable knowledge relating to function was gained through the production of gene knock-out mice 19-21 . Both GlyT1- - and GlyT2- -animals appear overtly normal at birth but die within one day and two weeks, respectively. GlyT1- - mice fail to suckle, display an abnormal body posture and show poor motor responses including marked respiratory deficiency. GlyT2- - progeny display different motor deficiencies including tremor, muscle spasticity and poor motor co-ordination. Similar phenotypes are observed in mice with mutations affecting GlyR function or expression (spastic, spasmodic and oscillator) and mutations within the human GlyT2 gene and the GlyR a1 subunit have been associated with startle disease 22 and hyperekplexia 23,24 . Deletion of one gene does not affect expression of the other indicating a lack of compensation or adaptation, and also helping to delineate specific roles for either transporter. Deletion of GlyT1 appears to result in excessive stimulation of inhibitory...

Posture Training

Patients often assume maladaptive or non-ideal postures because of pain, prolonged work positions, weakness, and decreased flexibility or because of congenital or developmental deficits. These postures often lead to other problems, limit the ability of the patient to compensate, or perpetuate pain. As the physical therapist works on flexibility, strength, joint mobility, and pain sources, it is important to train the patient to hold themselves in more optimal positions. Good posture improves readiness to move, decreases the need to more muscle activity, and makes activities such as breathing more efficient. This can be a lengthy process and the patient may need to enlist the help of family members and also use outside reminders such as timers.

Interscalene Block

Landmarks include posterior and lateral borders of the sternal and clavicular heads of sternocleidomastoid m., C6 tubercle, interscalene groove formed by the middle and anterior scalene m., upper border of cricoid cartilage, and clavicle (Fig. 20.3). Figure 20.3 Surface landmarks for the classical interscalene approach to the brachial plexus. (a) Sternal notch, (b) external jugular vein, and c sternocleidomastoid muscle. Line 1 identifies the clavicle. Dashed line 2 indicates the C6 vertebral process and is the line path along which to follow in search of the appropriate muscle response. X marks the needle entry site.

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