References

Ethics, clinical freedom and the doctors' role. In Culyer AJ et al., eds. Competition in health care reforming the NHS. Basingstoke Macmillan, 1990. 2. Bruster S, Jarman B, Bosanquet N, et al. National survey of hospital patients. BMJ 1994 309 1542-6. 3. Anaesthesia under examination the efficiency and effectiveness of anaesthesia and pain relief services in England and Wales. London Audit Commission, 1997. 4. Black N. Evidence-based policy proceed with care. BMJ 2001 323 275-8....

Of epidural analgesia and postoperative outcome

From the data available from large, randomised clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews on the effect of continuous postoperative epidural analgesia on surgical outcome, the overall effects on morbidity, hospital stay, and convalescence have been limited, except for a reduction in pulmonary morbidity and ileus.1-3,5-8,12,15 By contrast, comparative studies in lower body procedures have suggested a positive effect on allover morbidity and mortality by the provision of...