Traditional Chinese Medicine

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Acupuncture And Traditional Chinese Medicine

In our classification scheme, acupuncture is part of a world medicine system (traditional Chinese medicine) and is categorized as both a stimulation-based and an energy-based technique. Its origin dates to at least 600bc, preceding the availability of iron and steel for fashioning needles.26 Acupuncture theory postulates a system of channels or meridians on the body named after organs or Acupuncture technique and theory are embedded in traditional Chinese medicine, which in turn springs from Taoist philosophy. Taoism emphasizes the inextricable relationship between humans and the natural world drawing upon three fundamental concepts yin and yang, the system of five phases or elements, and the vital energy qi.27 Yin and yang conceptualize the dualistic nature of the universe and living systems in particular. Cold (yin) and heat (yang), internal (yin) and external (yang), deficiency (yin) and excess (yang) help characterize the balance of nature and the processes leading to disease....

Evolving Concepts of Pain

Seasonal changes could evoke particular imbalances of the humors, yielding certain disorders. For example, headache was attributed to excessive cold humors thought to result in a mucus discharge requiring application of hot effusions to the head. Interestingly, a similar process of excess liver fire was one explanation of headache in the traditional system of Chinese medicine. Consistent with both ideologies was the custom of treating pain by applying opposites, such as hot applications to the head to counterbalance and evacuate cold humors of headaches (King 1988) in the Four Humors system, while the imbalance of excess liver fire could be dispersed through needles inserted along the liver meridian and then cooled with alcohol. Used in both Eastern and Western tradition was the technique called cupping. Warm suction cups were applied to the skin that on cooling resulted in raised reddened welts thought to draw out any unbalanced humors (Rey 1955) or unblock...

Pharmacological Models of Agonism Antagonism and Inverse Agonism

The simplest models that describe the actions of agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists are the two state model of receptor activation and the ternary complex model (TCM) 14-16 . Within the two state model of receptor activation (Fig. 2.1b, left), receptors can transition between inactive (R) or constitutively active (R*), an equilibrium which is defined by the isomerization constant (L). The efficacy of a ligand is determined by its preference for binding the active over the inactive form of the receptor (a). The TCM (Fig. 2.1b, middle) describes the actions of a ligand (A) in terms of its affinity Models combining the two state model of agonist action and the TCM have also been developed to describe the effect of a ligand and G protein on a receptor that isomerizes between an inactive and an active state. Two such models are the extended TCM and the more thermodynamically complete version, the cubic TCM (Fig. 2.1c, left). Parameters within the cubic TCM include the affinity, KA...

Modulation of KAcetylation for Drug Development

KATs have also been drug targets to develop small molecule inhibitors. One surprising finding was that curcumin, a plant polyphenol used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine as a therapeutic agent or in cuisines as a dietary spice and or coloring agent, is a specific inhibitor of p300, CBP, and PCAF (Kang et al. 2006). With curcumin used as the initial lead compound, a water-soluble inhibitor known as CTK7A was developed (Arif et al. 2010). Importantly, CTK7A was shown to inhibit tumor growth in nude mice, suggesting the utility of KAT inhibition as an anticancer approach. In addition, virtual ligand screening has identified three potent inhibitors of p300 at a Ki value ranging from 0.4 to 4.8 p.M. All three consist of a linear arrangement of three or four aromatic rings terminating in a benzoic acid (Bowers et al. 2010). Among them, C646 has the lowest Ki of 0.4 p.M and is also the most specific to p300. At 10-20 p.M, C646 induces hypoacetylation in cultured cells, indicating...

Pharmacological Properties

The introduction of Cannabis to Western medicine occurred in the mid-19th century through the writings of William B. O'Shaughnessy, an Irish physician, who became aware of indigenous use of Cannabis plant during his service under the British in India. O'Shaughnessy reported the beneficial therapeutic effects of Cannabis for convulsions and muscular spasms caused by rabies and tetanus. Jacques-Joseph Moreau, a French psychiatrist, also discovered Cannabis during his travel in the Far East and studied its psychological effects in himself and his students. Moreau published his observations regarding the use of Cannabis as an experimental psychotomimetic in Du Hachisch et de l'Alientation Mentale Etudes Psychologiques (1840).

Biological Properties Medicinal Applications Of Laminaria

Laminaria possesses remarkable properties that make it a wonderful component of dietary supplements. Due to its amazing medicinal benefits, it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine since centuries and is listed in the Chinese pharmacopeia. In general, Laminaria is considered as a cold, salty herb, prescribed to cleanse heat, resolve phlegm, and soften and disperse hard accumulations (e.g., goiters). It is often used to control edema, as an expectorant and antitussive, and as a remedy for testicular pain and swelling. Despite its salty character, the herb is slightly hypotensive.

Studies of Cancer in Humans

The renal disease associated with prolonged intake of some Chinese medicinal herbs is called by various names. The term 'Chinese herb nephropathy' has been widely used in scientific nephrology publications. However, this could be considered misleading in relation to the hundreds of Chinese medicinal herbs that are safely used throughout the world, including for renal diseases. Thus alternatives such as 'aristolochic acid-associated nephropathy' and 'Aristolochia nephropathy' are also used. However, throughout this monograph, the term 'Chinese herb nephropathy' is consistently used to refer specifically to the Aristolochia-associated disease.

Chemistry and Biosynthesis

Pathway via phenylalanine or tyrosine (Mann, 1978) and major examples are coumaric acid (single hydroxyl group) and caffeic acid (Fig. 9.3). Oxidation of the side chain can produce derivatives of benzoic acid such as proto-catechuic acid and gentisic acid. These compounds are usually found in nature as glucose ethers or in ester combination with quinic acid. Other phenolic compounds of interest include resveratrol, a hydroxy stilbene found in red wine (Pace-Asciak et al., 1995), oleuropein, a bitter principle of olives (Visioli and Galli, 1994), and complex compounds which may be derived by oxidative coupling of more simple phenolics, e.g. salvianolic acid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine (Lin et al., 1996).

Codonopsis pilosula Franch Nannf Codonopsis tangshen oliv

Codonopsis is one of the primary energy tonics used in traditional Chinese medicine. For this purpose it is specifically used to enhance digestive powers, is considered similar in activity to Panax ginseng, and is often used as a lower cost alternative to ginseng. According to the Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005), Radix Codonopsis may consist of the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. or Codonopsis tangshen Oliv.

Understanding the scope of CAM

We can broadly separate all of CAM into three main classifications world medicine systems, other comprehensive systems of medicine that are not culturally based, and individual therapies (Figure 23.1). Unlike individual therapies, a system of medicine provides treatment for a whole spectrum of symptoms, illnesses, or diseases. It is generally a complete system of medicine with its own philosophy or science of health and disease, and its own diagnostic approach. A world medicine system evolves from the belief system and cultural practices of a society. Examples of world medicine are traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, which originates from India. Other systems of medicine, such as homeopathy, may evolve from a philosophical construct of health and disease, but is not part of a world cultural tradition. Traditional Chinese medicine These are shown in Table 23.1 with examples in each category. Mindful therapies utilize the mind to produce changes in physical and...

Brief history of acupuncture

During the fourth to the tenth centuries, acupuncture became ingrained in Chinese medicine and was officially recognized as an independent specialty of the Imperial Medical Academy of the Tang government in 618AD. During this same period, acupuncture, together with other branches of Chinese medicine, was introduced to other countries such as Japan.28 During the eleventh to the early twentieth century, volumes of written material came out on acupuncture prescriptions. Acupuncture As western medicine was introduced in China in the eighteenth century, acupuncture began to lose official favor. It was banned from the imperial court in 1822, but was still practiced widely and its use spread in Europe and other countries even as western medicine was making its way into China. In the 1940s, Mao Tse Tung revived the status of acupuncture practice as he found it a useful, inexpensive, and expedient alternative to western medicine, which was expensive and difficult to access during his quest for...

The Action of Acupuncture at the Peripheral Acupuncture Point

De Qi sensation has been described in the TCM as the therapeutic signal for acupuncture treatment. This De Qi sensation has been characterized by the patient as a sensation of heaviness, numbness, and soreness and aching (Wang et al. 1985). In the meantime, the acupuncturist experienced the sensation of needles being caught. It is now believed that De Qi sensation is caused by the activation of A and C fibers in the skeletal muscle (Wang et al. 1985, Pomeraez 1998), and recent studies have also demonstrated the insertion and rotation

Antidiabetic effects of seaweeds

The rhizoid of LJ is widely used in Chinese medicine as a treatment for diabetes. Bu et al. (2010) focused on the a-glucosidase inhibitor in the LJ rhizoid. This compound was determined to be butyl-isobutyl-phthalate (BIP) by spectral analysis. BIP exhibited significant concentration-dependent, noncompetitive inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase in vitro, with an IC50 of 38 mm. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and purified BIP had a significant hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice in vivo. These results conclude that BIP could be considered an a-glucosidase inhibitor and may become an important agent for diabetes therapy.

Microalgae As Potential Antiasthmatic Agents

It has been used as potential source to treat various diseases in Chinese medicine and has been suggested that it can be used to treat a variety of diseases including inflammation, night blindness, digestion, and burns (Qui et al., 2002). Depending on the variety of usages of this important microalga, Park et al. (2008) have shown that the lipid extract from N. commune var. sphaeroids represses the expression of several genes involved in the proinflammatory responses to inflammatory stimuli. Fatty acid mixture significantly reduced RNA abundance of TNF-a and COX-2. Further, DNA binding activity was also evaluated as NF-kB is the major regulator of proinflammatory gene expression and revealed that DNA binding activity of NF-kB significantly reduced by the treatment with N. commune lipid extract. Evaluation of dialyzed Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract (DCPE) on mast cell mediator release in vitro and overalbumin-induced airway inflammation in vivo revealed that in vitro treatment of mouse...

Schisandra chinensis Turcz Baill

Schisandra is one of the primary astringent tonifiers and adaptogenic substances used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has also become popular in the West and is included in numerous tonic herbal supplements. There are at least 38 different species of Schisandra and some may be traded interchangeably, though all are not medicinally equivalent. One species, S. sphenanthera (nan wu wei zi), is more commonly found than the northern species, S. chinensis (bei wu wei zi).

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi

Chinese skullcap root is one of the primary herbal detoxi-fiers used in Chinese medicine and is especially used for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases, as well as in the treatment of various cancers. Due to the increasing overlap in the trade of Asian and Western botanicals, there is potential for Chinese and Western skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) to become confused in trade. This has thus far not been reported.

The Medical Destiny Of Each Of Us And Our Children Is Largely Up To Us

There is a tendency when we walk into a doctor's office to want to hand over our problem to the doctor and say, Here it is, please fix it. It's comfortable, it's easy, and more often than not, it works. Just as we take comfort in deferring to them, many doctors are unwilling to confide in us that we may have stepped into one of Western medicine's black holes. There are many black holes, and they are deep, and kids with difficult-to-control seizures are in one of them.

Project Title Adjuvant Ginseng Use During Breast Cancer Drug Therapy

Summary (provided by applicant) Ginseng is an herb widely used by humans to treat lack of stamina, loss of appetite and cachexia, and impotence. In Asian medicine, ginseng is a common component in herbals used in treatment of cancer, including breast cancer. There is recent scientific evidence that ginseng and its ginsenoside components are effective in inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consequently, many patients may be taking ginseng supplements during treatment with standard chemotherapy and hormonal therapy regimens in an effort to enhance therapeutic results as well as ameliorate side effects of the cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. However, there is no information on how adjuvant ginseng use could influence the efficacy of the cancer therapeutic drugs. This R21 proposal will address the following questions. Will the adjuvant use of ginseng aid in or interfere with standard breast cancer chemo- or hormonal therapy Will adjuvant ginseng...

Clematis armandii Franch

Armand's clematis is primarily used in traditional Chinese medicine as a form of mu tong, originally derived from Akebia spp. This species of clematis is also cited as an alternate species to Clematis chinensis (wei ling xian). According to China's pharmacopoeia (PPRC 2005), Caulis Clematidis armandii may consist of the stems of either Clematis armandii Franch. or Clematis montana Buch.-Ham. It should be sold with the outer bark removed. Historically, C. armandii and C. montana (both called chuan mu tong) were substituted for the Akebia spp. also referred to as mu tong, as was Aristolochia manshuriensis (guan mu tong). All of these species can be confused in trade due to their shared common name of mu tong and long history of substitution. This problem is compounded by the similarity in macroscopic appearance of C. arman-dii and A. manshuriensis. The latter's stem contains toxic aristolochic acids (AAs) and is no longer included in China's pharmacopoeia, and not permitted to be sold...

Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Type II Polyketides

The AROs and CYCs associated with reduced polyketides are unable to cyclize unreduced polyketides. A different set of CYCs is present in PKSs lacking KR. The octaketide-specific Zhul and ZhuJ from the R1128 biosynthetic pathway can be combined with the act minimal PKS to produce the unreduced anthraquinone acid (TMAC).100 TcmN found in the decaketide-specific tcm PKS can catalyze the regioselective cyclization between C9 and C14 of unreduced (1) octaketides to yield RM11,101 (2) nonaketides to yield PK8102 and (3) decaketides to yield RM80.101 Similarly, equipping the whiE, sch and pms PKSs with dodecaketide-specific cyclases yields the compounds TW95a and TW95b (C9-C14).91 Additional cyclases can transform dodecaketides into the highly elaborate ring systems observed in pradimycin-related compounds. In the presence of the R1128 initiation module, the act KS-CLF produced alkyla-cyl-primed hexaketides instead of acetyl-primed octaketides.100 The reduced (when KR is included) and...

Periploca sepium Bunge

Periploca sepium is predominantly used in traditional Chinese medicine for arthritic conditions. It is also considered to be a relatively toxic botanical due to the presence of cardioactive properties. It is not commonly included in herbal supplements in the United States. However, it may occur as an adulterant of eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus). For a differentiation of the two species, see entry for eleuthero.

Clematis chinensis Retz

Clematis is primarily used in traditional Chinese medicine. According to China's pharmacopoeia, Radix Clematidis may consist of the roots and rhizomes of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, Clematis hexapetala Pall., or Clematis manshurica Rupr. These species are mostly traded interchangeably without differentiation. The rhizomes are often in a state of partial decay, with mostly lignified tissues remaining. All roots examined for this characterization showed only primary growth. A description of the stem bases is included because they often are found attached to the rhizome in trade. Supplies of botanical material coming from the genus Clematis are often labeled simply as Clematis. Because of this, the rhizome and root of Clematis chinensis may occasionally be substituted for the stem of Clematis armandii or Clematis montana or vice versa, despite the obvious macroscopic differences between the stems of the latter two species and the rhizomes and roots of C. chinensis. For the microscopic...

Stephania tetrandra S Moore

The roots of Stephania tetrandra are used almost exclusively in traditional Chinese medicine, predominantly for their ability to drain dampness. The common name for Stephania in Chinese pinyin is fang ji or, more specifically, han fang ji. This shares the common name of fang ji or, more specifically, guang fang ji, with Aristolochia fangchi, a botanical that contains the nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids (AAs). Stephania does not contain these compounds (AHP 2006a). Because of this nomenclatural similarity, the two herbs can be mixed up in trade. Although they were once considered to be used interchangeably, A. fangchi has been removed from China's pharmacopoeia. Aristolochic acid-containing ingredients are prohibited for importation or trade in the European Union and United States, though certain species remain available in some parts of Asia. The microscopic characterizations for each of these species are provided in this text. In Stephania, the stem may also be...

History of Acupuncture

Nixon American President Acupunture

Acupuncture is one of many therapeutic interventions utilized in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The seminal TCM textbook, Huang Di Nei Jing (Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or The Inner Canon of Huangdi), was compiled around 305-204 BCE (Fig. 16.1). This textbook covered the theoretical foundation of Chinese medicine (Unschuld 1985). It is composed of two volumes Shu Wen and Ling Shu. Each volume has 81 chapters and is written in a question and answer format between the mythical Huangdi and his ministers. The first volume, Shu Wen, also known as Simple Questions basically covers the theoretical foundation of Chinese medicine and its association with diagnosis and treatment methods. The second volume, Ling Shu, also known as Spiritual Pivot mainly describes meridians, acupuncture points, and acupuncture techniques and has laid a solid foundation for clinical acupuncture theory. Due to the complexity and the depth of the original Ling Shu, there were great discrepancies among the...

Herbal Supplements With Digoxinlike Immunoreactivity

Several herbal supplements, including several Chinese medicines, have digoxin-like immu-noreactivity because some components have structural similarity to digoxin. Digoxin immunoassays available commercially may use either a monoclonal antibody specific to di-goxin or polyclonal antibodies. In general, assays that employ polyclonal antibodies against digoxin, such as the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (rabbit polyclonal antibody) and microparticle enzyme immunoassay (both marketed by Abbott Laboratories), are subject to more interference by Chinese medicines than other digoxin immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies. Several Chinese medicines such as chan su, lu-shen-wan, danshen and Asian and Siberian ginseng interfere with various digoxin immunoassays.28-35 The Chinese medicine chan su is prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toads (Bufo melanostictus Schneider and Bufo bufo gargarzinas Gantor). Chan su is also a major...

Hedysarum polybotris Hand Mazz

Trichome Astragalus

Hedysarum is used in Chinese medicine as an energy tonic and is similar in action to astragalus. However, hedysarum is sometimes used as a substitute for astragalus, and while the two are similar in activity, they may not be medicinally equivalent from an immunomodulatory perspective. Specifically, hedysarum lacks astragaloside IV, a primary immunomodulatory triterpene of Astragalus mongholicus. In hedysarum, fiber bundles are surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate 7-14 im in diameter and up to 22 im long. Astragalus lacks calcium oxalate crystals (see entry for Astragalus mongholicus).

Role of Intestinal Immune System in Modulating the Activity of Botanical Polysaccharides

It has been hypothesised that botanical polysaccharides can interact with both epithelial cells and immunocompetent cells in Peyer's patches, resulting in potentiation of distal mucosal and systemic immune systems 265 . In support of this idea, botanical polysaccharides have also been shown to modulate Peyer's patch cells in the intestinal immune system. For example, the crude polysaccharide fraction isolated from Hachimi-jio-gan, a Japanese and Chinese herbal medicine, was found to augment IgA production in Peyer's patch cells, whereas the low-molecular-weight fraction from this medicine was not active 266 . Likewise, oral administration of polysaccharide complexes isolated from the Japanese herbal medicine Juzen-Taiho-To induced activation of Peyer's patch T cells and secretion of haematopoietic growth factors 267, 268 . Similarly, Yu and co-workers 269 reported that high-molecular-weight polysaccharides from Atractylodes lancea contributed to the immunomodulating activity in...

Origin type and botanical data

Aristolochia species refers to several members of the genus (family Aristolochiaceae) (WHO, 1997) that are often found in traditional Chinese medicines, e.g., Aristolochia debilis, A. contorta, A. manshuriensis and A. fangchi, whose medicinal parts have distinct Chinese names. Details on these traditional drugs can be found in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (Commission of the Ministry of Public Health, 2000), except where noted. This Pharmacopoeia includes the following Aristolochia species In traditional Chinese medicine, Aristolochia species are also considered to be interchangeable with other commonly used herbal ingredients and substitution of one plant species for another is established practice. Herbal ingredients are traded using their common Chinese Pin Yin name and this can lead to confusion. For example, the name 'Fang Ji' can be used to describe the roots of Aristolochia fangchi, Stephania tetrandra or Cocculus species (EMEA, 2000).

Pharmacological Models of Allosteric Interactions

The classical form of the TCM suggests that the probe dependence of the G protein defines the ability of the orthosteric ligand to promote the formation of the ternary complex and as such, the efficacy of an orthosteric ligand (Fig. 2.1b, middle). Within this model, the G protein has positive cooperativity with an orthosteric agonist, negative cooperativity with an orthosteric inverse agonist, and neutral cooperativity with an orthosteric antagonist. The TCM can also be used as a more general model to describe any allosteric interaction between two binding sites on a receptor. The allosteric ternary complex model (ATCM) is the simplest mechanistic framework that can quantify the binding properties of an allosteric modulator (Fig. 2.1c, right). The difference underlying the two models is that in contrast to the classical TCM, the ATCM makes no assumptions with regards to the efficacy of either ligand, purely modeling ligand binding. At the level of binding, allosteric modulators are...

Receptor Activation Upon Agonist Binding

In the original ternary complex model (TCM) described by De Lean et al. (42), an agonist-bound activated receptor forms a complex with a G protein, resulting in its activation. This corresponds to a simple example of a receptor isomerization mechanism in which ligand-binding (A) promotes a conformation of receptor (R) that couples to and activates a G protein (G). The next level of progression toward present GPCR models involved the incorporation of different receptor conformations into the scheme. The demonstration of constitutive GPCR activity by Costa and Herz (43) indicated that receptors could couple to and activate G proteins in the absence of ligand. This required modification of the original TCM, which did not enable spontaneous formation of the R*G species this modification resulted in the extended TCM (ETC) (ref. 44 Fig. 3A). According to the ETC, the receptor In 1996, Weiss et al. (45) proposed a more thermodynamically complete model called the cubic TCM (CTC Fig. 3B). In...

The role of herbal medicines in traditional healing

1.1.1 Traditional Chinese medicine Traditional Chinese medicine has been used by Chinese people from ancient times. Although animal and mineral materials have been used, the primary source of remedies is botanical. Of the more than 12 000 items used by traditional healers, about 500 are in common use (Li, 2000). Botanical products are used only after some kind of processing, Traditional Chinese medicine is still in common use in China. More than half the population regularly uses traditional remedies, with the highest prevalence of use in rural areas. About 5000 traditional remedies are available in China they account for approximately one fifth of the entire Chinese pharmaceutical market (Li, 2000).

Shu Ming Wang MSci MD Janet S Jedlicka PhD Otrl Anne M Haskins PhD OTRL and Jan E Stube PhD OTrl

Compare the pathological interpretation of low back pain in Chinese medicine to modern medicine Chinese medicine and modern medicine have radically different concepts regarding the etiology of back pain Chinese concept of pathological changes is as follows. The local muscles of the lower back were injured followed by overexertion. Consequently, the circulation of blood was retarded, which led to blood stasis. The development of blood stasis intensifies the pain and restriction of movement. On the other hand, modern medicine interprets the pain in terms of damage to anatomical structures. Following the local muscle injury, inflammation occurred causing local release of lactic acid and substance P, which worsens the inflammation. Owing to pain and fear of pain, abnormal posturing is adopted to guard against pain and limited movement develops. The abnormal posture causes further inflammation that initiates the development of chronic low back pain.

Aristolochia fangchi Y c Wu ex L D chou S M Hwang

Traditional Chinese Medical Science

The roots of Aristolochia fangchi are used almost exclusively in traditional Chinese medicine. A. fangchi contains the toxic aristolochic acids (AAs) and, because of this, has been removed from the Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC). Ingredients or products for internal consumption that contain AA are prohibited for importation or trade in the European Union and United States, though certain species remain available in some parts of Asia. Nonetheless, A. fangchi may still be encountered in commerce and may be confused with other botanicals sharing the common name fang ji, including the nontoxic Stephania tetrandra (han fang ji) and Cocculus orbiculatus (mu fang ji). Other species of Aristolochia and species from many other genera from several families also share the common name fang ji. This nomenclatural problem is compounded by the similarity in appearance of S. tetrandra and A. fangchi. The microscopic characterizations for each of these species are provided in this text.

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

Chinese salvia is one of the primary botanicals used in traditional Chinese medicine for invigorating circulation and dissolving blood clots. It is commonly applied in the treatment of gynecological conditions and cardiovascular disease. A variety of processing techniques are applied to Salvia that can result in minor to significant changes in the microscopic structure of the material. These include dry-fried salvia (chao dan shen), mix fried with wine (jiu zhi dan shen), and charred salvia (dan shen tan). Chinese salvia is not readily subject to adulteration.

Type II Polyketide Synthases 31 Dissociated Architecture

MAT has stringent specificity toward malonyl-CoA, which is reflected in the exclusive utilization of malonyl extender units by Type II PKS.75 Together, these four enzymes consist of the smallest set of enzymes required for the synthesis of a complete polyketide chain. For example, the minimal PKS from the actinorhodin (act) biosynthetic pathway synthesizes an octaketide (C16) backbone from eight malonyl-CoA equivalents,76 the tetracenomycin (tcm) minimal PKS synthesizes a decaketide (C20) backbone from ten equivalents of malonyl-CoA (Figure 8A),77 and the pradimycin (pms) minimal PKS synthesizes a dodecaketide (C24) backbone from twelve equivalents of malonyl-CoA.78


Tingliang Jiang, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 18 Beixincang, Dongzhimen Nei, Beijing 100700, People's Republic of China A. Douglas Kinghorn, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy (M C 781), College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 S. Wood St, Chicago, IL 60612, USA Siegfried Knasm ller, University of Vienna, Institute of Tumour Biology-Cancer


The terminology used to describe the broad scope of practices that are considered complementary or alternative to mainstream medical practice is diverse and often confusing. Alternative medicine, complementary medicine, holistic medicine, integrative therapies, natural medicine and traditional medicine are all terms that have been used nearly synonymously to represent an approach to health that is different from the biomedical system that is so entrenched in the western industrialized world. Each of the adjectives, alternative, holistic, complementary integrative, etc., have slightly different connotations which define a relationship with mainstream medicine. The term alternative implies instead of'' or apart from'' conventional medicine, whereas complementary connotes in addition to'' as a way of completing an approach to healing. Integrative medicine suggests multiple approaches that are applied together or in concert'' with one another. Holistic is an older term which was used to...

Botanical Therapies

Botanical or herbal medicine is an important part of many broader systems of medicine, such as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and other folk medicines. Of all the CAM practices, the use of botanicals is the oldest and most prevalent. Even allopathic pharmacological therapies can be considered as a highly evolved refinement of botanical medicine. Digitalis was originally isolated from the foxglove plant. Vinca alkaloids come from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharathus roseus). Taxol is derived from the yew plant. Opioids are derived from the poppy. Many healthy individuals exploit plant products for their physiologic effects. For example, ginger and coffee are used worldwide as stimulants. In a strict sense, herbs are derived from soft-stemmed plants, but botanical therapies include an array of other products derived from fruits, berries, roots, bark, and other components of plants. The spectrum of herbal therapies'' often includes nonplant materials such as horn,...

Qi and Meridians

Qi is considered as the essence of life (i.e., vital energy ) that cycles around the body and maintains all organs' functions (Fig. 16.4). Qi flows through a hypothetical network of channels called meridians that interconnect the various organs. Figures 16.5a and b are illustrations of Conception Vessel Meridian and Heart Meridians listed in the TCM textbook. Along the meridians, there are acupuncture points where Qi travels immediately below the skin surface. Qi appears to not only provide the linkage between internal organs but also carry vital information from internal organs to the skin surface. In the normal healthy condition, Qi flows in regular rhyme. However, any state of disharmony or any imbalance in Yin-Yang will also cause disturbances in Qi flow. The disturbances of Qi lead to manifestation of symptoms of illnesses.


Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a famous herb known in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine for thousands of years for its amazing healing properties. The fleshy underground rhizomes are the medicinally important part of this plant, since these contain curcuminoids, which are biologically active yellow pigments. Turmeric is a regular condiment in food items like curries in Indian and other Asian cuisine. The yellow powder made from the root has great spiritual significance in Hindu culture, and the dry roots are exchanged as a gesture of goodwill, particularly during marriage ceremonies.

Functional Foods

As a consequence of the attention given to functional foods, the West is giving renewed attention to the Eastern concept of food as medicine. A medical food in the US is defined as 'a food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease' (FDA, 1996). In Asia, the term 'medicinal food' simply means food used for medical purposes (Weng and Chen, 1996). In traditional Chinese medicine, food and medicine are of equal importance in preventing and treating disease. In the West, functional foods are distinctly not medical foods but are viewed loosely as having distinctly healthful properties beyond basic nutrition. The blurring of boundaries between Eastern and Western ideas about food and health is an indication of the need for more flexible approaches to diet and health, and it has the added benefit of focusing positively on well being.

Article On Amalpitta

Abt AB, Oh JY, Huntington RA, Burkhart KK. Chinese herbal medicine induced acute renal failure. Arch Intern Med 1995 155 211-212. Bensky D, Gamble A. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica (revised edition). Seattle Eastland Press Inc., 1993. Bensoussan A, Myers SP. Towards a safer choice. The Practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Australia. Sydney Faculty of Health, University of Western Sydney (Macarthur), 1996 54. Bensoussan A, Talley NJ, Hing M, Menzies R, Guo A, Ngu M. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Chinese herbal medicine a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998 280 1585-1589. Borchers AT, Hackman RM, Keen CL, Stern JS, Gershwin ME. Complementary medicine a review of immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 66 1303-1312. Chan TYK, Chan AYW, Critchley JAJH. Hospital admissions due to adverse reactions to Chinese herbal medicines. J Trop Med Hyg 1992 95 296-298. Kao FF. The impact of Chinese medicine on America. Am J Chin Med 1992...

Epimedium spp

Epimedium is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a vitalizing tonic, especially for sexual dysfunction, which has given it one of its more common names horny goat weed. The Chinese pharmacopoeia (PPRC 2005) recognizes five different species of Epimedium as interchangeable E. brevicornum Maxim., E. koreanum Nakai, E. pubescens Maxim., E. sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim., and E. wushanense T. S. Ying. These are reported to be microscopically similar, with small differences that are outlined in Asian microscopy literature. Adulteration in the American market does not appear to occur.

Cooh Hooc

When evaluating potential bilirubin treatments, one should take into consideration the experience obtained from traditional Oriental medicine. Ox gallstones (also known as Niu Huang in Chinese, Goou in Japanese, artificial bezoar or calculus bovis 343 , which consist largely of calcium bilirubinate) 344 , have been used as an essential component of many Chinese remedies. The gallstone extracts are said to possess calming, antipyretic, and generally anti-inflammatory effects. The biological effects of these products have been summarized recently in a comprehensive review by McGeary et al. 345 . The biochemical effects of the ox gallstone extracts are not known however, they have been shown to prevent variations in arythmogenic potential of embryonic mouse myocardial cells 346 or to be effective in treating chronic liver diseases 347 . In other Chinese studies summarized in the review article by McGreary et al. 345 , ox gallstones have been shown to have substantial antiviral and...

Bupleurum spp

Bupleurum is one of the primary botanicals used in traditional Chinese medicine for supporting liver health. According to the Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005), Radix Bupleuri may consist of the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. (bei chai hu) or Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd (nan chai hu). Remnants of aerial stem parts may be present in commercial material. There are numerous other species of Bupleurum that may also be traded as Radix Bupleuri. These are not easily differentiated morphologically. The toxic species of Bupleurum (B. longiradiatum da ye chai hu) is not typically found in trade.


The benzylisoquinoline tetrandrine (465), isolated from hanfangji , the root of Stephania tetrandra, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been found to have beneficial effects in the treatment of silicosis (Seow et al., 1988). Tetrandrine has a suppressing effect on random movement, chemotaxis and phagocytosis of human neutrophils at a concentration of 10 xgmr1, but it inhibits superoxide generation from neutrophils at a considerably lower dose of 0.1 xg ml '. This effect was related to the ability of 465 to scavenge superoxide radicals.

Coenzyme Q10

Ginseng is the most thoroughly studied plant with the longest history of traditional use for cancer and other ailments.82 The Asian variety called Panax ginseng is the center of ginseng research and the most sought after herb in Chinese medicine. In Chinese tradition, ginseng is considered as a tonic that gives vital energy to the body. Its usage in Western medicine was picked up after scientists described ginseng as an adaptogen, something that normalizes bodily functions.83 Ginseng sales peaked during the 1990s.

Chinese Herbs

Chinese Herbs

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