Since the discovery of 6-amino penicillanic acid (penicillin) in 1929 [297], p-lactams have been one of the most successfully used classes of antibiotics. They are irreversible inhibitors of peptidoglycan-cross-linking enzymes, d, d-transpeptidases and d, d-carboxypeptidases [298]. p-lactams are rarely used in chemotherapy of TB, however, because of the limited permeability of the mycobacterial cell envelope, expression of inactivating enzymes (p-lactamases), and involvement of p-lactam-insensitive targets in peptidoglycan transpeptidation.

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