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Dietary Fiber In Seaweed Helps To Ameliorate Digestive Health

Dietary fiber, a group of non-starch carbohydrates basically of plant origin found in various vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, and root crops, is an essential part of a healthy diet. Since the dietary fiber is not digested by the digestive enzymes, it cannot perform a direct nutritional effect in the human body. However, dietary fiber indirectly supports the human nutrition by involving in some important functions to promote the digestive health during its passage through the gastrointestinal track. These functions include reduction of incidences of colorectal cancers, suppression of bowel inflammations and related abdominal disorders, facilitation of bowel movement, and growth promotion of health-promoting gut microflora. In comparison to the fiber content of the foods derived from terrestrial plants, seaweed has similar or even higher levels of dietary fiber. The average total dietary fiber content in seaweed can be varied from 36 to 60 based on its dry matter (Lahaye, 1991...

Reduction of obesity by bringing down the caloric value of the diet

Dietary obesity and obesity-related diseases are among the widely occurring nutritional health problems in most of the developed nations in the Western world. Seaweed fiber in the diet helps to control weight gain in different ways. Adding considerable amount of seaweed to the diet enables to keep the dieter feel fuller quickly and to reduce the appetite dramatically for further eating. Moreover, most of the dietary fiber in seaweed is not taken up by the human body and provides a low caloric value to the diet. In addition, this soluble fiber forms a viscous mass in the gut and traps digestive enzymes and some other nutrients, slowing down the digestibility of food and the absorption of nutrients in the intestine. A recent study carried out with a drug developed using alginic acid revealed that volunteers who were 25-30 overweight significantly decreased their body weight after treating with the drug (Zee, 1991). In addition to the dietary fiber, polyphenols in the seaweed extracts of...

On the Possible Role of Inflammation in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in Schizophrenia

It is well known that genetic and environmental factors interact to favor weight gain, changes which disrupt metabolism. The body fat stores are normally maintained within a narrow range by energy homeostasis. This process is controlled by the brain regions, such as hypothalamus, that control appetite and energy balance in addition to peripheral signaling systems that monitor energy stores. Glucose, free fatty acids, insulin and leptin are examples of the signaling molecules that activate the hypothalamus thereby controlling the metabolic rate and the desire to eat. Obesity does not simply arise from the passive accumulation of excess body weight but is an active adaptation to the elevation of body fat. Clearly, the genetic background of the individual contributes to the variation in the response to elevated body fat which helps to explain why some individuals are protected against weight gain while the majority is not despite the fact that they live in the same environment and eat...

Discontinuation Of The Diet

The KD, if successful, is traditionally continued for 2 yr. The origins of this tradition are unknown. An outcome study of 150 children, questioned 3-6 yr after starting the diet, revealed that only 10 were still on the KD after more than 4 yr (1). Discontinuation during the first year of therapy was often secondary to perceived ineffectiveness or restrictiveness. After 1 yr, significantly fewer children were discontinued for these reasons, and comparatively more had the diet stopped because they were seizure free (often 2 yr) or had an intercurrent illness. Of those remaining on the diet at 1 yr, 36 (30 of 83) became medication free. ents, and finally adding new carbohydrate foods over weeks while keeping calories constant. An alternative method that appears to work, although it has never been rigorously tested, is to substitute whole milk for heavy cream while maintaining the remainder of the diet. After 2 wk we gradually switch to 2 and then to 1 milk. If this protocol does not...

Calculating Dietary Units

Dietary units represent a caloric value based on the ratio of grams of fat to carbohydrate and protein. In a 4 1 ratio, a dietary unit has 4 g of fat for every gram of protein and carbohydrate combined. Because fat has 9 kcal g and protein and carbohydrate has 4 kcal g, the dietary unit in the 4 1 ratio has 40 kcal per dietary unit (9 kcal g x 4 g 36 kcal) + (4 kcal g x 1 g 4 kcal) 40 kcal dietary unit. To calculate the number of dietary units for a given diet prescription, divide the energy goal by the kilocalories per Dietary Unit for the indicated ratio (Table 2). For example, 1300 kcal, 4 1 diet 1300 kcal -f 40 kcal dietary unit 32.5 dietary units

Optimal Amount of Dietary Calcium Intake and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

In the Stone Age the diet of human adults is estimated to have contained from 50 to 75mmol of Ca (2000-3000 mg) day, three to five times the median calcium intake of the present day in Western countries.7 As the human genetic make-up has not modified, our body needs remain suited to a much higher calcium intake than we currently consume. Although mammalian physiology contains mechanisms by which organisms can adjust to temporary environmental shortages, chronic calcium retention has a number of health consequences. A number of chronic diseases have been linked to a low dietary calcium intake, including bone fragility, high blood pressure and colon cancer in susceptible individuals.8 Recent studies have also linked weight control and regulation of body fat to an adequate dietary calcium intake. We present here evidence indicating that an optimal dietary calcium intake may prevent to some extent each of these multifactorial problems. In contrast to the NIH suggestions to increase the...

Dietary Supplement Regulations

Regulation of dietary supplements has had a long and sometimes controversial history. Most Americans assume dietary supplements are as tightly regulated as OTC and prescription medications are. But with the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), dietary supplement controls were relaxed. Supplement manufacturers are no longer required to provide data supporting safety as required for both OTC and prescription drugs. In order to understand the evolution of current regulations, it is insightful to explore the history of food and drug regulations. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) The average daily dietary nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98 ) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. Source Adapted from Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Dietary Reference Intakes, 2006, 8-16. In 1903 Dr. Harvey Wiley, then head of the Bureau of...

Weight Control and Regulation of Body

A link between dietary calcium and weight management in humans has been hypothesized. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), which is representative of the US civilian non-institutionalized population, have been recently re-evaluated. Data have suggested that after controlling for energy intake and physical activity, contrary to common thought, an adequate calcium intake may actually be associated with a reduced likelihood of being in the highest quartile for adiposity.57 Zemel et al. reported an almost 80 difference in obesity rates between those Americans in the lowest quartile of dietary calcium intake versus those in the highest quartile.57 Several studies have reported an impact of supplemental dietary calcium on weight loss and have suggested that diets low in calories but high in calcium may provide some better protection against obesity. Experimental data in animals and in humans have also suggested a possible role of dietary calcium...

Tapering the Diet After Successful Therapy

Tapering of the ketogenic diet should occur after 1-2 yr of successful seizure control. Reduction in the ratio is used to gradually reduce ketosis and taper off the diet. Ketone levels should be checked after each reduction in the ketogenic diet ratio. Children usually remain on the 4 1 ratio (or the ratio that has enabled them to produce large ketones consistently) for up to 2 yr. The ratio can be gradually tapered to 3 1 for 6 mo then 2 1 for another 6 mo. Carbohydrate can be gradually added to the diet in the form of bread, pasta, rice, cereal, crackers, and dairy products to eliminate the remaining ketosis. Milk

Training of Nursing and Dietary Hospital Staff

It is essential that nursing and dietary staff who will be involved in the care of pedi-atric patients be trained fully. We provide extensive in-service teaching for nurses and dietary personnel to ensure that there is consistency in provision of the KD and care of the hospitalized children. Some of the instruction is a modified version of the parent teaching. Nursing staff is instructed in the basic principles of the KD, with emphasis on early metabolic issues during fasting and KD initiation. For the dietary staff, a 1- to 2-h class is given by our KD dietitian on basic principles, weighing techniques, and diet preparation.

Dietary Sources Supplements and Recommended Intake of Vitamin E

Vegetable oils and lipid-rich plant products (e.g. nuts, seeds, grains) are the main dietary sources of vitamin E (10,11). In Western diets, vitamin E intake derives mainly from fats and oils contained in margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and desserts, and increasingly also from fortified food (e.g., breakfast cereals, milk, fruit juices) (12-14). It is noteworthy that the U.S. diet contains large amounts of y-tocopherol compared with populations in other Western countries, which is a result of the high consumption of soybean and corn oils containing more y- than a-tocopherol (15). Vitamin E used for food fortification or dietary supplements consists mainly of a-tocopherol, derived either from natural sources (i.e., methylated y-tocopherol from vegetable oil) or from synthetic production it is usually esterified to increase stability. The most recent data available on vitamin E intake in the United States were reported in 1999 from the Third National Health and Nutrition...

Outpatient or Inpatient Initiation of the Diet

There has been much discussion lately about whether it is safe to initiate the diet outside the hospital setting. Our feeling is that in certain circumstances it is possible and safe, and we have begun several patients on the KD as outpatients. Sometimes an insurance company will not cover the KD even when deemed medically indicated. If the patient has responsible caregivers, no medical contraindication, no history of status epilepticus, and is at least 8 yr old, we consider initiation of the KD on an outpatient basis. In such a situation, the physician, nurse, and dietitian are available around the clock for the first few nights to take calls from the family. Typically, the patient is fed enterally or has been on the diet before. The outpatient initiation of the diet is gradual, starting at a very low ratio and increasing over several weeks. The parents are provided with a glucometer, trained to obtain finger-stick blood sugars, and educated about the symptoms of hypoglycemia and how...

CB1 Antagonists in the Treatment of Obesity and ReLAted Comorbidities

The interest to develop cannabinoid antagonists derives from the multiple functions in which the endogenous cannabinoid system is involved mainly the control of appetite and lipid and glucose metabolism (for a review, see Di Marzo, 2008a Piomelli et al., 2000). We will focus more in detail on the effects of rimonabant as this lead compound has been widely used and described in literature (for a review, see Bifulco et al., 2007a). The pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic profile of rimonabant, as expected by both preclinical and clinical studies showed that rimonabant is distributed widely in brown fat, it could reduce total energy intake and body weight gain in obese rats and the most effective dose in reducing body weight in obese human subjects was 20 mg day. The assessment of the clinical efficacy of rimonabant as an antiobesity drug was carried out in multinational, randomized, and placebo-controlled trials on overweight (with a body mass index BMI higher than 27 kg m2) or obese (BMI...

Dietary Supplementation For Ocular Health

Because the eye is unique in its demand for oxygen required to sustain its high rate of metabolism (214), and because whenever functioning its tissues are concurrently exposed to the stress of electromagnetic radiation, it should not be surprising that the retina is exquisitely sensitive to homeostatic balance, influenced by the state of systemic health (292). It had been suspected by physicians for some time and epidemiologists more recently that nutrition, and in particular certain essential nutrients, might retard progression of age-related disease, and in particular, age-related eye disease (293-295). However, it was not until a large trial AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) trial of extended duration was undertaken by the National Eye Institute (NEI), initiated about 1992 and extending beyond seven years, that there was clinical evidence for benefit of dietary modification through supplementation. The AREDS trial demonstrated unambiguous benefit of supplementation with five...

Is There a True Dietary Reference Intake for Carbohydrates

The amount of dietary carbohydrate needed for optimal health in humans is unknown. In the few older studies of populations that consume low-carbohydrate and high-fat and high-protein diets for their lifetime (the Masai, Greenland natives, Inuits, and indigenous people of the South American Pampas), there were no apparent effects on health or longevity (67,68). The new dietary reference intake (DRI) for carbohydrates is set at 130 g d for adults and children (69). This amount was based on the average minimum amount of glucose utilized by the brain. The average American eats two to three times this amount of carbohydrate daily.

Dietary factors that decrease zinc absorption

High dietary intakes of phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate), common in those whose major food staples are grains and legumes, substantially reduce the absorption of zinc.10 Clinical zinc deficiency in humans was first described in 1961, when the consumption of diets with low zinc bioavailabil-ity due to high phytate content was associated with 'adolescent nutritional dwarfism' in the Middle East.28 Zinc absorption from a meal with a phytate zinc molar ratio that exceeds 15 may be 50 lower than from a meal where the phytate zinc molar ratio is less than 5.29 Calcium in combination with phytate reduces zinc absorption still further. This effect is particularly relevant to populations consuming a diet that is highly dependent on tortillas made with lime (calcium oxide).8 The bioavailability of zinc from foods containing animal protein is generally high due to a relative absence of inhibitors of zinc absorption and the presence of sulfur-containing amino acids that enhance zinc...

Dietary Intake Absorption and Metabolism

Average intakes of flavonols and flavones have ranged from 6 mg day-1 in Finland to 64 mg day-1 in Japan, with intermediate intakes in the USA (13 mg day-1), Italy (27 mg day-1) and the Netherlands (33 mg day-1). These estimates were based on recent analyses of five flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, luteolin and apigenin) in composite food samples for populations in the Seven Countries Study (Hertog et al., 1995). Dietary sources of the flavonols and flavones varied between different countries, with major contributions from tea in Japan (90 ) and the Netherlands (64 ), red wine in Italy (46 ), and vegetables and fruits in Finland (100 ) and the USA (80 ). The main sources of flavonols and flavones in the human diet are shown in Table 15.1. Herbs and spices, although not consumed universally in large quantities, are also rich in phenolic compounds and constitute the largest proportion of known natural antioxidants. Isoflavones are found in the legume family, mainly soybean....

Laminaria japonica as a Food for the Prevention of Obesity and Diabetes

Obesity 200 B. Antiobesity effects of seaweeds 201 food additives, and foodstuffs in many countries, especially those in Asia. The seaweed Laminaria jap nica (LJ) is popular as kombu in Japanese cuisine. Laminaria sp. is one of the most important marine medicinal foodstuffs, as its biological functions have been widely investigated in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This chapter introduces recent reports on the ability of Laminaria to prevent obesity and diabetes, and some approaches for effectively using the bioactivities found in Laminaria. The inhibitory effects of Laminaria sp. on triglyceride absorption were investigated in triglyceride-loaded mice and in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Shaved Laminaria, known as tororokombu, showed more effective activities in

Antiobesity effects of seaweeds

Maeda et al. (2005) reported that fucoxanthin has an antiobesity effect by modifying uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KKAy mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes with obesity. When fucoxanthin is orally administered to mice, it is metabolized to fucoxanthinol, which is further converted into amarouciaxanthin A (Asai et al., 2004 Sugawara et al., 2002). Fucoxanthin and its metabolite fucoxanthinol have been shown to reduce the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) g in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which in turn inhibits differentiation to mature adipocytes (Maeda et al., 2006), suggesting that fucoxanthin inhibits adipocyte maturation and stimulates UCP1 expression in WAT. In addition, Maeda et al. (2009) reported that fucoxanthin-rich wakame lipids (WLs) had antiobesity and antidiabetic effects on HFD-induced obesity in mice. The increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in HF mice was normalized...

Dietary intervention trials

The Woman's Health Initiative (WHI) is currently evaluating the effectiveness of a dietary modification strategy to reduce the incidence of breast and colorectal cancer and CHD (Eaker and Hahn, 1994). The dietary goals of the WHI are multifactorial and include a reduction of total dietary fat intake to 20 of total energy intake, a reduction of saturated fat intake to 7 of total energy intake, and an increase in the intake of fruit and vegetables (five or more daily servings) and grain products. The effects of fat reduction on disease incidence will be hard to differentiate from the effect of an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption.

Dietary intervention trials and secondary prevention

Clinical trials using dietary intervention with clinical endpoints are, up to the present, from secondary prevention. In a study using an a-linolenic acid-rich diet patients were randomly assigned after first MI to the experimental (n 302) or control group (n 303) (de Lorgeril et al., 1994 Renaud et al., 1995). Subjects in the experimental group were advised to eat more bread, more vegetables and legumes, more fish, less meat (beef, lamb and pork), it being replaced by poultry, to have no day without fruit, and to replace butter and cream with a margarine comparable with olive oil. The experimental group consumed considerably less lipids, saturated fat, cholesterol and linoleic acid, but more oleic acid and a-linolenic acid and had increased plasma concentrations of these nutrients and also of vitamins C and E. The diet was also rich in folic acid. After follow-up of 27 months those in the experimental group had a relative risk of 0.27 (95 CI 0.12-0.59, P 0.001) of MI or cardiac death...

Dietary Supply of Antioxidants in the Developed World

Vitamin C and p-carotene are available from fruits and or vegetables, and vitamin E from vegetable oils. Southern European countries consuming the classical Mediterranean diet show that optimal plasma levels of these antioxidants can easily be achieved. This diet is characterized by a preference for fresh products and frequent consumption of fruit vegetables legumes and oils with high vitamin E content. In contrast, major parts of populations in the USA or in northern parts of Europe do not consume optimal amounts of antioxidant nutrients. The availability of lower-priced convenience foods in the USA acts against the consumption of freshly prepared foods. Thus, only 10 of Americans achieved five servings of fruit and vegetables daily (Patterson et al., 1990) as recommended by the United States' national food guide, the Food Guide Pyramid (Achterberg et al., 1994). Only a quarter consumed fruits or vegetables rich in vitamin C or the carotenoids, and 41 had no fruits or vegetables on...

Risks For Obesity Diabetes And Cardiovascular Disease 41 Obesity

Obesity is a major public health problem in the United States, with an increasing prevalence in both adults (37,38) and children (39). Obesity increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from associated diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cancer (40-42). Diets have been the traditional approach to dealing with excessive weight. Robert Atkins (43) popularized the use of the ketogenic diet to deal with weight gain. This type of ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate but high-protein formulation and consequently is fundamentally different from diets used for seizure control. The Atkins diet is based on the premise that control of insulin is essential for weight loss and associated beneficial effects in reduction of diabetes and cardiovascular risk. By reducing carbohydrate intake to a negligible level, the diet attempts to eliminate insulin fluctuations that might occur after a typical meal. It is important to note that while this diet does not limit...

Dietary Factors That May Worsen Seizures

Although this chapter focuses on dietary manipulations that may alleviate seizures, it must be acknowledged that some diets or dietary constituents may worsen seizure control. Glutamate, the primary excitatory brain neurotransmitter, is clearly epileptogenic (110,111) seizure exacerbation has been attributed to excess intake of glutamate (in particular, monosodium glutamate, a flavor enhancer) (112). Stimulants such as caffeine have been reported to exacerbate seizures, probably owing to its blockade of adenosine A1 receptors, activation of which is anticonvulsant (113,114). Alcohol ingestion can lower seizure threshold, both acutely and chronically (115). This list is obviously incomplete, and worldwide, specific local dietary practices can reveal particular foods that can cause seizures, e.g., betel nuts (116). It is certainly simplistic to suggest a direct link between each of these food substances and epilepsy, inasmuch as more complex regulatory mechanisms are undoubtedly...

Etiology Of Overweight And Obesity

For years, overeating and obesity were thought to result from psychological problems an addictive personality, a lack of discipline, poor self-control, and or traumatic childhood experiences. Many experts are now acknowledging that overeating and obesity are more likely a result of two concomitant factors not directly associated with psychological abnormalities (a) a calorie-toxic environment that results in augmented intake of calories and refined carbohydrates along with a poor intake of fibers and (b) a sedentary lifestyle emanating from too much TV watching, computer surfing, and automobile driving in place of walking.1,3 25-27

Association Of Obesity With Cancer

While the association of cancer to obesity defined as an abnormally high, unhealthy proportion of body fat is generally accepted, results from studies attempting to link obesity to cancer have not always been positive. Therefore, it is important to realize that not all types of cancer may show such an association. Those with the highest certainty of a link include breast, colon. prostate, endometrium, cervix, ovary, kidney, gall bladder, liver, pancreas, rectum, and esophagus.30'33'34 The International Agency for Research in Lyon, France, noted the association between overweight, obesity, physical inactivity, and cancer.3334 Taken together, this working group proposed that excess body weight and physical inactivity account for approximately a quarter to one-third of cancers of the colon, endometrium, breast, kidney, and esophagus. They believed the enhanced risk could be attributed to alterations in the metabolism of endogenous hormones, including sex steroids, insulin, and...

Advantages Of Using Dietary Chemopreventive Strategies

Dietary chemoprevention represents an attractive approach to this problem, especially given the young age of the patient population. Dietary supplements could be taken orally, which is certainly advantageous compared with the daily injections required with interferon therapy or direct injections of the lesions with steroids. Presumably, the side-effect profile would be minimal and certainly much more favorable than the fevers, irritability, growth disturbance, immunosuppression, and spastic diplegia (a form of cerebral palsy) associated with the other treatment options discussed in the previous section. Indeed, the EOMA model has proven efficacy to demonstrate the antiangiogenic properties of edible berry extracts and to explore the feasibility of dietary chemoprevention for endothelial cell neoplasms.40

In Vitro Evidence to Support Inhibition Of Angiogenesis By Dietary Chemoprevention

Despite the lack of in vivo data, there is a substantial body of in vitro data published on the topic of dietary antioxidant compounds and their antiangiogenic capabilities. This provides the scientific foundation to justify pursuing dietary chemoprevention strategies to inhibit angiogenesis in an in vivo setting. Anthocyanins are flavonoid glycosides found in berries with antioxidant properties.45 The ability of endothelial cells to incorporate anthocyanins into the membrane and cytosol, where they maintain their antioxidant functions, has been documented in vitro.46 Oral intake of anthocyanins has also been shown to achieve an increase in serum antioxidant functions in vivo.47'48 Dietary antioxidants have been shown to inhibit a number of processes involved in tumor angiogenesis, many of which are known to be redox-sensitive processes. These include expression of growth factors, cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinases known to participate in angiogenesis, altering...

Types Of Dietary Lipids

Understanding of the processes involved in the digestion, uptake, intracellular metabolism, and packaging of dietary lipids into CM which are the major lipoprotein particles carrying lipophilic compounds to the systemic circulation. As will become evident, the processes involved are complex and physiologically regulated. This review will include a thorough discussion on the possible role of intestinal brush border membrane lipid transporters in the uptake of lipids by the enterocytes, the physiological processes governing the formation and secretion of CMs into the lymphatic system and how these processes can be manipulated to control lymphatc drug uptake. We will also discuss the exciting findings by two independent research groups on the ABCG5 and ABCG8 (1,2) which are involved in the rare human genetic disorder of sitosterolemia and how they may play a role in the absorption of cholesterol and other lipophilic compounds. Readers interested in learning more about cholesterol...

Dietary Modifiers Of Ad Risk

Can AD be forestalled by dietary manipulations. Dietary risk factors for AD may be similar to those that increase risk of other prominent age-related degenerative conditions including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such risk factors include high calorie intake (combined with low level of exercise) and low antioxi-dant intake. The ability of food restriction to extend lifespan and forestall the development of age-related diseases is well known (68), and appears to apply also to brain aging (163). Interestingly, some epidemiological data are consistent with the possibility that food restriction reduces the risk for AD. For example, there is a strong correlation between per capita food consumption and incidence of AD among populations in different countries (Fig. 8). The ability of antioxidant supplementation to prevent AD is not yet established but, based on the data described above (and many more data not covered herein), the prediction is that this will prove to be the case....

Luminal Digestion Of Dietary Lipids Gastric Lumen

Digestion of dietary lipids is initiated in the stomach by acid lipase, which is secreted by the gastric mucosa. The distribution of gastric lipase in different parts of the human stomach is shown in Figure 2 (21). The highest gastric lipase activity is detected in the fundus of the stomach, a finding that has been confirmed by an independent study conducted during the postmortem examination of two healthy human subjects (22). Human gastric lipase has a pH optimum Gastric lipases also play an important role in lipid digestion in adults. This is evident in patients with cystic fibrosis, who maintain their ability to absorb dietary lipid even though pancreatic lipase secretion is markedly or completely inhibited (29,30). Carriere et al. (31) demonstrated that although the gastric lipase activity observed is lower in vivo, it was sufficient to initiate the digestion of a significant portion of the ingested TG. Preliminary emulsification of dietary fat in the stomach is an important...

Micellar Solubilization And Uptake Of Dietary Lipids By Enterocytes

Much of our current understanding of the role of micellar solubilization in the gastrointestinal absorption of dietary lipids and their digestion products comes from the work of Hofmann and Borgstrom (100,101). This concept was subsequently modified by Carey et al. (33), who discovered the coexistence of unilamellar liposomes, which also played a role in lipid absorption in the small intestine. The relative importance of these different vehicles in facilitating the uptake of lipids by the enterocytes will be discussed in the following section. While the uptake of lipid digestion products by enterocytes has been generally accepted to occur via a passive process, a number of different investigators have provided evidence that the absorption of cetrain lipids may occur via an energy-dependent, carrier-mediated process.

Genetic Studies In Humans With Obesity Or Eating Disorders

Association studies and obesity Since it became clear in mouse models that mutations in genes of the neuronal circuitry underlying energy balance can cause obesity many associations studies have been performed to identify the relevance of these genes for obesity in humans. In this part we will go into detail concerning the association studies, which show functional sequence changes, done for the genes involved in the leptin signalling pathway as described before. For the leptin gene itself, although indicated as the obesity gene after the ob ob mouse, few mutations and polymorphisms have been found, which makes the link between leptin and overweight in humans uncertain. Although a number of studies have investigated the leptin gene and its role in obesity, only one study reports on polymorphisms present in the leptin gene in obese individuals and not in average weight people. In this study both the leptin gene itself and its regulatory element were genotyped in 125 extreme obese...

Manipulating Resistance to Oxidants Dietary Restriction

Dietary restriction regimens display a well-documented ability to increase longevity and decrease morbidity in rodents (Kristal and Yu, 1994 Shimokawa and Higami, 1994). One of the most striking effects of dietary restriction (DR) is its ability to decrease oxidative damage to critical targets, including mitochondria (Weindruch et al, 1980 Laganiere and Yu, 1989 Yu et al, 1992 Sohal et al, 1994 Yu, 1996). Mitochondria from dietary restricted animals have lower basal levels of lipid peroxidation, generate less lipid peroxidation on challenge, and detoxify harmful lipid peroxidation by-products at greater rates than those from ad libitum-ied rats (Laganiere and Yu, 1987 Chen and Yu, 1996). Mitochondria from dietary restricted animals also maintain membrane structure and function (e.g., fluidity and lipid composition) later in life than those from ad libitum-ied rats (Yu et al, 1992). Further work shows that steady-state levels of 8-hydroxydeoxygu-anosine (Chung et al, 1992) and...

Dietary Therapies And Epilepsy

Dietary therapies for epilepsy are as old as the disease itself and have evolved over the ages to accommodate changes in the ideas about the etiology of epilepsy (11). Antiepileptic diets used during the Greek, Roman, and Renaissance periods were designed to rid the brain of toxic agents thought to underlie the epileptic seizures (12). A strict dietary regimen was recognized as a key for managing or curing the disease. These early antiepileptic diets, however, often comprised vile concoctions of raw animal organs and extracts that induced nausea or vomiting and were frequently administered with purgatives and enemas (12). Restricted food intake over days or weeks would often occur as an unintended consequence of such dietary therapies. This restriction would produce the physiological conditions of fasting in which circulating glucose levels are reduced and ketone levels are elevated (13-15). Hence, altered brain energy homeostasis would be expected following antiepileptic dietary...

Influence Of Caloric Restriction On El Mice 61 Study Design

All mice were matched for age and body weight before initiation of CR, and all received a regular chow diet that contained a balance of mouse nutritional ingredients and delivered 4.4 kcal per gram of gross energy. We implemented CR in individually housed mice using a total dietary restriction. This involved restricting the amount of food a mouse normally consumed per day under ad libitum (AL) conditions. The average daily food intake (grams) was measured under AL conditions in individual male and female mice at both juvenile and adult ages throughout the study (41). Each AL-fed mouse received a known amount of food (approx 50 g), and the difference in chow weight was recorded every 2 d at approximately the same time (11 am-1 pm). The amount of food given to the CR-fed juvenile mice was 85 (15 CR) of that given to the AL mice daily. At adult ages, the CR-fed mice received 85 and 70 (30 CR) of No adverse side effects were seen in the mice receiving either the 15 CR diet (at juvenile...

The Relationship Of The Kd And Caloric Restriction In Seizure Management

The KD is most effective in reducing seizure susceptibility in children when administered with fasting or under restricted caloric intake (17,77). Livingston also reported that KD efficacy was associated with body weight reductions of approx 10 and reduced blood glucose levels (78). Our findings in EL mice on the CR diet are consistent with these findings in humans. It is interesting that the anticonvulsant effects of the KD are usually lost in patients who experience a rise in blood glucose levels, i.e., in those who gain weight on the diet or consume carbohydrates (16,17,21). Based on our studies with EL mice, we suggest that the seizure-protective effects of the KD are largely dependent on the maintenance of reduced blood glucose and body weight. We suggest that the KD suppresses seizure susceptibility largely through CR.

Evidence That The Kd Suppresses Seizure Susceptibility Through Caloric Restriction

The association between blood glucose levels and seizure susceptibility is less clear in epileptic humans than in animal models of epilepsy, perhaps because of the capricious nature of glucose measurements in humans and from the broad range of glucose levels in normal individuals (60-120 mg dL) (78,79). A normal glucose level for one person could be hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic in another person. Indeed, some children can function normally with blood sugar levels as low as 20 mg dL (78). The reduction of body weight and restriction of calories in children on the KD implies reduced glucose levels relative to the levels prior to the initiation of the diet. To determine the relationship between glucose and seizure protection under the KD, it would be necessary to monitor glucose levels in children prior to the initiation of the KD. In other words, glucose levels should be monitored both before and during the KD with each child serving as his or her own control. According to Livingston,...

Oxidative DNA Damage is Linked to Dietary Antioxidant Levels

Divided into four matched groups, received daily for 12 weeks 15 mg of either a p-carotene, lutein, lycopene or a placebo. Blood concentrations of these and other dietary antioxidants were measured by HPLC before and after supplementation. We found no significant effect of the supplements on DNA damage however, levels of oxidized bases (especially endonuclease Ill-sensitive sites), measured only at the end of supplementation, showed a significant negative correlation with several of the carotenoids measured at the same time. Surprisingly, this correlation tended to be at least as strong with pre-supplementation carotenoid concentrations (Collins et al., 1998a). Figure 30.1 shows, as an example, the negative correlation between endonuclease III sites measured after supplementation and p-carotene concentrations before and after supplementation. This supports the idea that carotenoids (or some other associated phytochemicals) taken up as part of the normal diet modulate the amount of...

Npy And Galanin Link The Dietary Aspects Of The Kd To Its Anticonvulsant Effect A Model

Some empirical evidence exists that supports this model. First, the administration of a calorically restricted KD indeed results in starvation-like conditions that reduce body weight and inhibit growth (43) and would be expected to promote NPY (and perhaps galanin) expression. Second, reduced insulin and leptin levels are observed in people maintained on the KD (44-48), which again would likely increase the expression of orexigenic neuropeptides. Interestingly, weight gain is a common effect associated with use of many anticonvulsant drugs (49), suggesting that other epilepsy therapies may also activate the NPY and galanin systems. Third, galanin is induced by fat consump-

Dietary Restriction The Cheapest The Best

Dietary restriction is an anti-aging therapy that dates back further than antioxidant administration, and, importantly, it is also more interesting due to its effectiveness. The first studies about dietary restriction were made in the 1930s by McCay and co-workers 232 , and since then, their work has been replicated 233 . In rodents, the most studied model, a 40 reduction in dietary intake can increase the MLSP by 50 234 . Of significance, dietary restriction not only increases the mean and maximum life spans but it also delays the onset of most diseases associated with aging, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and diabetes 235 . This shows that delaying aging is also useful in delaying the development of aging-associated diseases. The efficacy of dietary restriction on life span depends on three factors the moment at which it is initiated, the duration of restriction and the number of calories restricted. In general, we can state...

Dietary Restriction and Reduction in Oxidative Stress

Long-lived animals possess mitochondria that generate fewer free radicals so it is logical to assume that dietary restriction can increase longevity within a species through the same mechanism. Antioxidants do not explain the effects of dietary restriction on longevity because they do not consistently increase during food restriction 19, 20,141,182, 243, 244 . Repair mechanisms cannot explain the effect of dietary restriction on longevity either, since dietary restriction decreases mtDNA repair 144 . The best-supported hypothesis to explain the effect of dietary restriction on longevity is through a reduction in mitochondrial free radical production. Initial studies in mice showed that dietary restriction decreases mtROS production in different tissues 19, 20 . Later studies located the decrease in mtROS production in dietary restricted rats to complex I 46 , the same respiratory complex responsible for differences between long-lived and short-lived animals. The decrease in mtROS...

How are Mitochondrial ROS Regulated During Dietary Restriction

Initially, it was proposed that dietary restriction reduced the metabolic rate, and that it was this decrease that was responsible for the reduction in mtROS production. However, different studies demonstrated that such a simple relationship does not exist. It has been shown that dietary restriction does not alter metabolic rate 253, 254 . Although mitochondrial oxygen consumption could initially be reduced 254, 255 , after several weeks of dietary restriction there was no difference between the ad iibitum-fed and dietary restricted animals 53 . Nowadays, the two most feasible and not mutually exclusive hypotheses about the control of mtROS include hormonal regulation and specific dietary components.

Regulation of Mitochondrial ROS Production by Specific Dietary Components The Role of the Dietary Proteins and

An alternative possibility with regard to hormonal regulation of mtROS production during dietary restriction is the regulation offree radical generation through specific dietary components. It is generally agreed that calories themselves, rather than any specific component of diet, would be responsible for the effect of dietary restriction on longevity 279 . However, a recent re-evaluation of the literature shows that protein restriction also increases maximum longevity in rats and mice, although to a lower extent than dietary restriction 26 . Interestingly, several previous studies showed that restricting only a single amino acid, such as methionine 280, 281 or tryptophan 282 , also increases maximum longevity in rats. Recent reports have demonstrated that longevity in flies may be increased by restricting specific dietary components without reducing the calories provided 283 . Interestingly, it has recently been shown 60, 284 that protein restriction decreases mtROS production at...

Beneficial and Adverse Effects of Dietary Estrogens on the Human Endocrine System Clinical and Epidemiological Data

Dietary estrogens, also known as phytoestrogens, represent a family of plant compounds which are of biological interest because they exhibit both in vivo and in vitro weak estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties. Phytoestrogens appear to exert their physiological effects through a variety of possible mechanisms, such as their ability to bind to estrogen receptors and their actions on tyrosine kinases and growth factors. Phytoestrogens can be classified into three main categories consisting of isoflavones, lignans, and coumestans. A variety of commonly consumed foods contains appreciable amounts of these plant compounds which have been identified in various human body fluids, such as plasma, urine, bile, saliva, feces, breast milk, prostatic fluid and semen. Accumulating evidence from both clinical and epidemiologi-cal studies has suggested that dietary estrogens may potentially affect the human endocrine system. The existing evidence reviewed here will identify the current research...

Biological Potencies of Dietary Estrogens

In vitro research has played an important role in determining the biological potencies of dietary estrogens. In cultured cells, both proliferative and antiproliferative effects have been ascribed to genistein 74-77 . Wang et al. 68 observed that genistein stimulated estrogen-responsive pS2 mRNA expression, and this effect could be inhibited by tamoxifen. Thus, the estrogenic effect of genistein would appear to be a result of an interaction with the ER. At lower concentrations (10-8 to 10-6 M), genistein stimulated growth of ER-positive cells, but at higher concentrations ( 10-5 M), genistein inhibited growth. Genistein failed to stimulate the proliferation of ER-negative cells at low concentrations. The biphasic effects of genistein on growth at lower concentrations appeared to be via the ER pathway, while the effects at higher concentrations were independent of the ER. These effects might appear to be involved in the mechanism by which genistein contributes to the decreased risk in...

Role of Leptin in Inflammation and Its Possible Connection to Obesity in Schizophrenia

In most obese patients, obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation of white adipose tissue. This results from the chronic activation of the innate immune system that subsequently leads to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes 41 . In obesity, the white adipose tissue is characterized by the increased synthesis and secretion of a range of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6. In addition, the adipose tissue is infiltrated by macrophages that act as a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines when activated. Conversely, weight loss leads to a reduction in the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory As has been mentioned previously, premature death due to cardiovascular disease is a common occurrence in both schizophrenia and depression. IL-6 is increased in both schizophrenia and major depression and is known to induce hepatic C-reactive protein that has been implicated in cardiovascular disease 45 . In addition to...

Perspectives For Pharmacogenetic Research Into Eating Disorders And Obesity

Obesity drugs Drugs which have been available and licensed for obesity treatment until now are only moderately effective and may have serious side-effects. There is, however, great need for drugs which are on the long term both safe and effective with regard to weight loss and longstanding weight maintenance. Presently, only two drugs are licensed in most Western countries for long term use in obesity management orlistat and sibutramine. Other drugs, in some countries licensed for short-term use in obesity management, are amphetamine, its derivatives and related compounds dexamphetamine, metamphetamine, benzamphetamine, diethylpropion, clobenzorax, fenpropex, phen-dimetrazine, phentermine and mazindol. These anorectic drugs increase the release and action of norepinephrine and dopamine and carry a serious risk of drug dependence and abuse and are therefore not approved in many countries. valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension). Other serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such...

Perspectives On The Antiepileptic Mechanism Of Caloric Restriction

Ketogenic Diet For Seizures

Perspectives on the metabolic management of epilepsy through a dietary reduction of glucose and elevation of ketone bodies. A dietary reduction in blood glucose levels will increase ketone utilization. This is expected to shift the neural environment from excitation to inhibition (see text). Abbreviations GLUT-1 (glucose transporter), MCT (monocarboxylate transporter), PFK (phospho-fructokinase), PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase), SCOT (succinyl-CoA-acetoacetate-CoA transferase), P-OHB (P-hydroxybutyrate), GABA (y-aminobutyric acid). Fig. 8. Perspectives on the metabolic management of epilepsy through a dietary reduction of glucose and elevation of ketone bodies. A dietary reduction in blood glucose levels will increase ketone utilization. This is expected to shift the neural environment from excitation to inhibition (see text). Abbreviations GLUT-1 (glucose transporter), MCT (monocarboxylate transporter), PFK (phospho-fructokinase), PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase), SCOT...

Antiobesity activity

Obesity may occur in any gender, however, it is more likely to occur in females (Popkin and Doak, 1998 Rennie and Jebb, 2005). Obesity among females (from teens and seniors) continues to increase in many industrialized and developing countries, which cause a worrying health trend (Kelishadi, 2007). A detrimental effect of obesity on female reproductive system has been demonstrated consistently (Pettigrew and Hamilton-Fairley, 1997). Further, it is reported that media and sociocultural influence continue to pressure young female to be thin which promotes body dissatisfaction, eating disturbance, depression, and negative effect in young female (Stice et al., 2003). Therefore, female may pay a higher health price for obesity than male. Accordingly, many categories of natural and synthetic compounds which demonstrated as antiobesity drugs have been used by female to reduce their weight. However, synthetic antiobesity agents are believed to have certain side effects such as unacceptable...

Stress Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

So, can perceived stress and its biological correlate lead to metabolic disturbance The answer would seem to be yes, in that, stress be it social or work-related leads to an immediate activation of the sympatho-adrenal network which leads to an outpouring of norepinephrine and cortisol which in healthy non-obese individuals results in tachycardia, a reflex vasodilation and the disposal of glucose while the opposite metabolic effects are seen in obesity 54 . The origin of the stress can be work-related or otherwise, as suggested in a study by Chandola et al. 55 who found that such stress was associated with higher cortisol levels in the morning and was directly related to the future development of IHD. Healthy individuals respond to stress in a unitary fashion with the activation, as mentioned already, of the sympatho-adrenal system and the HPA axis resulting in an increase of cortisol and epinephrine. One immediate consequence of this is an increase in resting heart rate and a...

Sources and Typical Intake Levels of Dietary Estrogens

Phytoestrogens are present naturally in many foods of plant origin (e.g., rice, rye, bran, pomegranates, apples, wheat, garlic, oats, coffee, fennel, licorice, barley, parsley, cherries, yeast, potatoes, soybeans, and soy-based products, including animal feeds). They have also been identified in alcoholic beverages. Phytoestrogens have been isolated from beer made from hops and bourbon made from corn 10,50-55 . The type of isoflavone differs according to how the soybean is treated and its origin. Japanese soybean varieties contain different proportions of isoflavones to those grown in the United States (US), and fermented products, such as miso, contain more unconjugated isoflavones rather than daidzin and genistin 56 .Variation in phytoestrogen content can also occur because of genetic differences in plants such as soy varieties, location, season, infection with fungal diseases, and processing 57 . The main isoflavones of interest from a dietary perspective are genistein, daidzein,...

Potential Adverse Effects of Dietary Estrogens

Among treatment groups suggesting that the deficits in male sexual behavior were not due to deficits in adult gonadal function. These data provide evidence that lactational exposure to phytoestrogen diets can alter neuroendocrine development in both female and male rats. In addition, feeding flaxseed, the richest source of the mammalian lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol digly-coside, to rats during a hormone-sensitive period has demonstrated reproductive effects 270 . The female offspring had shortened anogenital distance, greater uterine and ovarian relative weights, earlier age and lighter body weight at puberty, lengthened estrous cycle, and persistent estrus, whereas the males had reduced postnatal weight gain and greater sex gland and prostate relative weights, suggesting estrogenic effects. These examples in animals suggest that the phytoestrogen content of soy products and other dietary products may induce unintended adverse effects on reproduction and development in...

Potential Health Benefits of Dietary Estrogens

Both clinical and epidemiological data suggest that dietary estrogens may have a beneficial effect on the human endocrine system. Breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, menopausal symptoms, heart disease, and osteoporosis share a common epidemiology in that they are rare in Far Eastern populations eating traditional diets containing soybean products compared with Western populations. However, with Westernization and loss of traditional eating patterns, the pattern of disease incidence is also changing in these countries. Cross-sectional

Dietary lipids

However, the most fundamental membrane function is electron conductance, which appears to depend to a large extent on the presence of choline, a charged molecule, and a zwitterion OC C N j which may facilitate membrane electron transport by Grotthus conduction. Deficiency of dietary choline or dietary lipotropes (vitamin B12, folate, pyri-doxal, glycine, PO _, etc.) (Fig. 1.3) leads to ROS production, lipid peroxidation, tissue injury, malignancy and death (Vance, 1990 Lombardi et al., 1991 Schrager and Newberne, 1993). Although much attention has been focused on the causation of coronary heart disease (CHD), namely by dietary fats and cholesterol, it would appear that the mechanisms generally assumed by physicians are somewhat incorrect. Firstly, dietary cholesterol has little affect on blood cholesterol levels, and in any event probably leads to the decrease of cholesterol by enhancing cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase activity and promoting bile acid production (Bjorkhem et al.,...

Weight Reduction

Optimally, weight loss is achieved by a gradual increase in energy expenditure from exercise combined with dieting to decrease the caloric intake. Amphetamine promotes weight loss by suppressing appetite rather than by increasing energy expenditure. Other anorexic drugs include methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, phentermine, benzphetamine, phendimetrazine, phen-metrazine, diethylpropion, mazindol, phenylpropanolamine, and sibutramine (a mixed adrenergic serotonergic drug). These agents may be effective adjuncts in the treatment of obesity but they all present significant risk of adverse effects (see above). Available evidence does not support the isolated use of these drugs in the absence of a more comprehensive program that stresses exercise and diet modification.

The Dietitians Role

The most important member of our ketogenic diet team is the dietitian. Our dietitian is employed by our Epilepsy Center, a private clinic, rather than by the hospital, thereby assuring that she does not have conflicting responsibilities. Other centers need to utilize dietitians whose duties are shared by other clinics and by inpatient units. Based on the dietitian's workload, we have found that we can initiate and follow a maximum of one to three patients per month, also dependent on the needs of the patient and the abilities of the caregivers. Once a new patient has been seen by the dietitian, he or she is put on the initiation schedule. The dietitian then confers with the pediatric neurologist and nurse to establish when the child will be started on the KD, details of diet initiation, and follow-up plans. The dietitian must analyze the child's diet history and dietary needs, review with family the checklist for preparing the home, develop the meal plans with the food preferences and...

Caloric Restriction

In 2001 we showed that in addition to the KD, caloric restriction (CR) alone could reduce seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice (41). CR is a natural dietary therapy that improves health, extends longevity, and reduces the effects of neuroinflammatory diseases in humans and rodents (42-47). CR involves a reduction of total dietary energy intake while maintaining adequate levels of vitamins and minerals (48,49). In contrast to prolonged fasting or starvation, which produce clinical hypoglycemia and ketoacido-sis, CR lowers glucose levels and raises ketone levels within normal physiological ranges. The shift from glucose to ketone energy produces enhanced vitality and metabolic efficiency (11,50,51).

The Perception of Antioxidants in America

The average American has come to perceive antioxidants as the first line of defense against aging and chronic disease. Even though scientific studies report conflicting results and do not yet provide specific guidelines, dietary supplement use in the United States, which includes antioxidants, continues to rise. Concern over dietary supplement usage and safety issues due to unquestioned consumer confidence in supplement effectiveness and safety is growing as well. This has prompted many health agencies such as the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM), National Institute of Health (NIH), and the World Health Organization (WHO) to study vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant efficacy and use, subsequently issuing statements that establish interventions, consumer education programs, and recommendations. Improvements in living conditions, food supply, and medical care have increased life expectancy in the United States to its current 77.9 year average.1 As a nation we are...

The Medical Community and Supplements

Many health care professionals find they are just as confused about supplements as the general public. Because of the many uncertainties surrounding the effectiveness and safety of supplements, most physicians err on the side of caution. A few studies about physician health and treatment practices shed some insight on how physicians handle the topic of dietary supplements with their patients. As a group, physicians generally have a healthier lifestyle and lower mortality rate than the general public. Physicians with healthy habits are more likely to discuss preventive health behaviors with their patients, than those who do not, which in turn appears to influence counseling practices.31 Not many studies have investigated physician attitude toward dietary supplement and CAM therapies. A literature search turns up two studies worthy of note. The first examines physician attitude toward CAM therapies. This study found most physicians, the majority being women and younger than 46 years...

Vitamins and Minerals

The individual cells in our bodies operate much like factories. The essential building blocks of enzymes, as well as essential cofactors and energy availability, are required for cells to operate properly and ensure survival of the human body. As we now know, vitamins and minerals are essential for life-sustaining chemical reactions to occur. An essential nutrient is defined as one that must be provided to the organism by food because it cannot be synthesized by the body at a rate sufficient to meet its needs. 14 Essential nutrients vary between the different species. When critical vitamins and minerals needed for healthy cell maintenance, growth, and development are removed from the diet, deficiency symptoms eventually become apparent. Depending on body stores, symptoms of these deficiencies can occur relatively rapidly or take months to develop in humans. Vitamins are defined as organic substances, needed in very small amounts, that perform a specific metabolic function and must be...

The Antioxidant Controversy

The fact that a number of diseases are associated with oxidative stress drives the theory that antioxidants may represent an intervention strategy in these diseases. However, current evidence from clinical research has not unequivocally substantiated these theories nor demonstrated a causal role of pro-oxidants in age-related diseases. Neither has scientific evidence proved conclusively that dietary antioxidant supplementation can prevent disease or increase longevity in humans. Thus, debate and controversy has arisen among scientists, health care professionals, and the lay public alike regarding the efficacy and wisdom of using dietary antioxidant supplementation to prevent chronic diseases and delay aging.

What Does Research Show

A dietary antioxidant is a substance in foods that significantly decreases the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, or both on normal physiological function in humans. Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

Antioxidant Research Synopsis of Past and Current Study Results

Underestimate of the true number of journal articles on this subject. It is beyond the scope of this book to review the sum total of this literature however, we can portray how our knowledge has evolved and some of the more popular current theories in the field of free radical biology and medicine. The first antioxidant article, cited in the Medline database, was in 1946 and the author suggested that vitamin C could be used to identify the day of ovulation.2 The next year in which the key word antioxidant was cited was 1950 when suddenly 356 articles were published. Arguably, this marks the date when a relatively large number of scientists within the biomedical community began to grapple with the therapeutic validity of antioxidants and began the serious study of their involvement in radical reactions within biological systems and their possible effects on health and aging. There is no doubt that researchers had noticed health benefits of some phytochemicals much earlier however,...

Carotenoid Conclusions

There are over 850 studies assessing the effects of antioxidant supplements. A great many of these studies show that carotenoids lower the risk of diseases. The media and public have drawn the conclusion that taking carotenoid supplements is safe and effective if adequate amounts are not obtained from dietary sources. But then there is confusion whenever dire warnings are issued by the media in response to reports such as that from the CARET study. What is missing in public perception of carotenoids is that the vast majority of evidence indicating beneficial effects of carotenoids are seen when they are consumed as a mixture of carotenoids and in the company of sufficient amounts of other antioxidants such as vitamin E, C, and selenium. Carotenoids are beneficial as part of the antioxidant defense system but in high concentrations and alone they appear to be unstable and when oxidized they form dangerous radicals that may themselves promote cancer development in the body.

What Should We Conclude from All This

Supplementing the diet with vitamin C or vitamin E may have beneficial effects for some individuals who are either suffering from certain malabsorption conditions or under oxidative stress due to illness or advancing age. But for the majority of people supplementing at levels below the IOM upper tolerable limits, the worst they will suffer is loss of the funds required to purchase these supplements. If they experience only peace of mind, then there may yet be benefits we cannot measure. Science is difficult to compare given the many variables across studies. Nevertheless, there seems to be a difference emerging with regard to the efficacy of antioxidant nutrients in primary versus secondary disease prevention. may be best for most people, but supplements necessary for some people under certain conditions. There is, however, a time element to these questions that are difficult for scientists to study. What are the effects of lifelong dietary habits versus lifelong supplement habits Why...

The Antioxidants of Life

There are a number of biological substances and compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity. Some are exogenous vitamins, some are endogenous enzymes, some are mineral cofactors, and some exert their effects by modulating endogenous oxidative defense mechanisms. Confusion about what represents a true antioxidant is exhibited by the case of the mineral selenium. Even though it is considered an antioxidant, selenium is actually an essential dietary micronutrient that is incorporated into selenoproteins. Selenoproteins are proteins that exhibit antioxidant characteristics, thereby giving selenium antioxidant status. Antioxidants can be classified into two groups endogenous and exogenous.

Special Considerations

Smokers, teenagers, young adults, and those who ingest excess alcohol have been found to have lower plasma levels of carotenoids. It is uncertain if this is due to age, lifestyle choice, or because fruit and vegetable intake is generally poor in these individuals. Supplementing these at risk groups with carotenoid supplements has been shown to be beneficial however caution is advised with smokers. As the CARET and ATBC studies found, cancer deaths increased when ( -carotene dietary supplements were given to smokers (although it is interesting to note that cancer deaths did not increase when they were supplemented with ( -carotene from food sources rather than from supplements). Mineral oil, cholesterol-reducing drugs (such as cholestyramine and colestipol), the obesity drug Orlistat, Colchicine (used for treatment of gout), and regular use of plant sterol- or stanol-containing margarines have been shown to reduce carotenoid absorption from food sources and supplements. There is some...

Supplement versus Food Source

Fruits and vegetables are the primary food sources for vitamin C. Citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, tomato products, tomato juice, and potatoes are the most popular sources in the American diet. But vitamin C is also found in brussel sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, strawberries, cabbage, spinach, and foods fortified with vitamin C. Time and condition of the growing season, growing location, cooking practices, and storage time before consumption can all affect the amount of vitamin C available from a food source. Table 5.2 lists common vitamin C dietary sources.10 Vitamin C bioavailability from food sources and dietary supplements appears to be similar and both have an estimated 70 to 90 percent absorption rate by the body. As expected, absorption rates do decrease when intake increases beyond physiological needs.11

Zinc and Coenzyme Q10

Zinc and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are compounds that need to be mentioned because they appear to have a close connection to antioxidant activity. Zinc, an essential micronutrient, is found in almost every cell and serves as a catalyst for enzymes, supports a healthy immune system, aids wound healing, is required in DNA synthesis, is required for growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence, and maintains the senses of taste and smell. It is found in a wide variety of foods, but good sources are oysters, red meat, poultry, some shellfish, beans, nuts, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products. Bioavailability is greater from animal sources than plant sources. Phytates (plant phosphorus that binds minerals making them unavailable for absorption) in plant sources (whole grains, cereal, and legumes) can bind zinc, thus decreasing its bioavailability. Zinc absorption can also be inhibited by iron, calcium, phosphorus, protein, fiber, and picolinate (a...

Antioxidants and the Redox Biology of Life

According to a November 30, 2006 Wall Street Journal1 article, resveratrol supplements are the current hot supplements in America. They have become so popular with Americans that retailers are unable to keep up with consumer demand. A plant phytochemical, flavonoid and stilbene, and antioxidant molecule, media portrayal of resveratrol as a possible antiaging elixir that is life-prolonging has greatly boosted sales of this dietary supplement. The buzz about resveratrol commenced when investigators from Harvard Medical School published a paper in the journal Nature in August 2003 about this phytochemical, which is found in red wine and grape skins.2 The investigators found that resveratrol directly influenced critical genes and prolonged lifespan by 30 to 70 percent in yeast cells, citing unpublished data of preliminary results that the lifespan of fruit flies and earthworms could also be extended. Subsequent studies have demonstrated resveratrol's capability to improve health and...

Making Sense of It

As research studies till date show, consistent evidence supporting antioxidant benefits in human trials has been disappointing. In vitro and animal studies suggest antioxidant supplementation provides benefits, however, some recent research demonstrates that in some cases antioxidant supplementation may actually do more harm than good. Individual antioxidants in the form of dietary supplements are more potent and bioavailable than they are in food matrices, and they do not exhibit the synergistic effects with other compounds found within natural food sources. Therefore, supplements most likely do not possess all the physiologically active components needed to be truly effective in preventing disease incidence and progression. In addition, individual genetics and or physical status may have as significant an effect on health as antioxidant nutrients do. We saw in the early years of America that poor diets caused many nutrition-related, life-threatening, and debilitating diseases. Food...

Carotenoids and Human Studies

The concept that carotenoids, by their capacity to trap peroxyl radicals and quench singlet oxygen are cardioprotective, appears to be borne out in observational epidemiological studies of the effects of carotenoid-rich foods on CVD.131 Supporting this concept is a study that 3,254 people followed from 1989 to 1995, which showed that higher serum levels of carotenoids with pro-vitamin A activity significantly reduces the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer.132 The Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly in 1,168 elderly men and women followed for ten years showed that plasma carotene concentrations were associated with a 21 percent lower mortality risk for every 0.39 micromol L increase in plasma carotene, a 41 percent lower mortality risk for cancer, and a 17 percent lower risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease.133 Data obtained from the Nurses' Health Study show that dietary intake of the antioxidant carotenoids a- and fi- carotene are...

Praeger

Antioxidants-Health aspects-United States. 2. Antioxidants industry-United States. 3. Dietary supplements-United States. 4. Functional foods-United States. I. Richer, Alice C. II. Title. III. Series. DNLM 1. Antioxidants-therapeutic use-United States. 2. Antioxidants-adverse effects-United States. 3. Antioxidants-metabolism-United States. 4. Dietary Supplements-United States. QV 325 M638u 2008 RB170.M52 2008 616.07-dc22 2007029900

Supplement Efficacy

Cancer, immune function, and cataracts), particularly among the young, the elderly, those with chronic illnesses, low-income populations, and overweight patients.36 But, it is known that high levels of many of the minerals (i.e., iron, zinc, copper, selenium) and some fat-soluble vitamins (i.e., vitamin A and (3 -carotene) can be toxic. However toxic levels can be avoided when multivitamin mineral supplements are taken properly. It is a fair assumption that more hard data is needed to determine dietary supplement benefits and risks. The U.S. supplement industry is largely unregulated and supplement functional food nutraceutical use continues to increase. Most supplement users are healthy and at low risk for nutritional inadequacies. Worldwide trials of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, (-carotene, and other carotenoids were reviewed in 2000 by a panel appointed by the IOM of the National Academies of Science, which was charged with establishing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for these...

Antioxidant Defenses

There are, in addition, antioxidants that are exogenous and brought into the body through the diet. These molecules become essentially sacrificial molecules that are oxidized by reactive species before other more essential biomolecules are. Vitamins C and E and carotenoids are examples of these sacrificial dietary molecules capable of scavenging ROS. While the exact biological function of vitamin E is not currently known, vitamin E can scavenge peroxyl radicals and also appears to protect membranes against lipid peroxidation by acting as a chain-breaking antioxidant.52 As we discussed, every oxidation reduction reaction results in formation of a new radical. The benefit derived by biological systems, when vitamins C and E are oxidized, is that the radicals produced are not highly reactive and thus easily reduced by GSH. As we already know, plants and most animals can synthesize vitamin C. Humans are a rarity among animals that cannot. During evolution a branching occurred among...

Vitamin E and Vision

Age-related macular degeneration and cataracts are leading causes of vision loss among aging individuals worldwide. Observational studies have found that lens opacity, an early sign of cataract formation, was lessened in subjects who took vitamin E supplements regularly.109 Under conditions of oxidative stress, which has been conclusively demonstrated to exist in smokers, vitamin E supplementation may not be sufficient to delay cataract formation.110 The Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was designed to test the efficacy of long-term dietary supplementation in preventing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Results of the AREDS provided some evidence that antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, may be effective in preventing or treating AMD. This study

Carotenoids

Animal studies are complicated by the fact that most animals absorb carotenoids very poorly. Ferrets, gerbils, and preruminant calves are among the animals that absorb carotenoids, however, relatively few antioxidant studies have been conducted with in these animals.125 As a result, studies to determine the effectiveness of carotenoids as antioxidants must be conducted in humans where dietary carotenoids are well absorbed.126 According to Rice-Evans et al.,127 the evidence that carotenoids are antioxidants in vivo is not very convincing. Indeed, despite numerous studies of the effects of carotenoid

Selenium

But there is another side to selenium in animals. Although it is toxic in large doses, selenium is an essential micronutrient for animals. This became strikingly clear in the 1970s when a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy disorder, known as Keshan disease and rampant in humans in certain areas of China, was linked to dietary selenium deficiency. It seems that China has regions that contain some of the world's most selenium-poor and selenium-rich soils. Because of this discovered link, Keshan disease can now be prevented and treated, should it occur, with selenium supplementation.

Safety Issues

Vitamin A is needed for vision, growth, reproduction, and immunity. Requirements for vitamin A depend on how much is stored in the liver and absorption is affected by the amount of fat in the diet, the food matrix, food processing, and absence of intestinal infections. Hypervitaminosis A (excess intake of vitamin A) is toxic and can be acute or chronic. Acute toxicity usually occurs when retinol intake is over 150,000 g in adults and 5,500 g in infants. Chronic toxicity occurs when retinol intakes exceed 30,000 g per day over a period of time in adults.3 Specific population groups those who abuse alcohol and or those with liver disease, hyperlipidemia, or severe protein malnutrition often have increased requirements for vitamin A over those in the general population.

Vitamin C

As discussed previously, vitamin C or ascorbic acid is an essential water-soluble vitamin for all humans and functions as an antioxidant and cofactor in enzyme and hormonal reactions. It has been promoted as increasing immunity, thereby preventing and reducing colds. However, studies have yet to support this long-standing theory. It does play a major role in cartilage and collagen formation, in regulation of iron absorption and storage, and in immune system protection. Vitamin C scavenges free radicals (by donating electrons) and regenerates other biological antioxidants (such as glutathione and a-tocopherol vitamin E ). The body does not store vitamin C because it is water-soluble, although the body does have small tissue storage pools up to 2,000 mg. Excess intake is excreted and, in times of low dietary intake, the body will conserve vitamin C by minimizing excretion.7

Polyphenols

The polyphenolic flavonoids found in red wine and cocoa have received the most press attention. Red wine polyphenols are related to what is known as the French Paradox, the term given to the observation that French people remain slim and have low incidences of coronary heart disease despite eating a diet high in saturated fats. It has been suggested that the tendency of the French to consume higher quantities of red wine (containing the polyphenol resveratrol) than Americans is the reason for lower heart disease rates. Study of the average French diet finds that portion sizes are smaller, dietary fats mostly come from dairy and vegetable sources (very little from animal fat), fish is eaten more often, snacking between meals is limited, convenience foods are avoided, and sugar intake is lower than the average American diet. It is most likely these reasons, and not resveratrol, that account for the difference in cardiovascular disease rates between the two countries. Research into the...

Recommendations

Study results from the 1986 NHIS found that 26 percent of American adults took a vitamin A supplement. NHANESIII, 1994-1996 data found the highest mean intake amount of preformed vitamin A for any gender and life stage group was between 895 and 1,503 (g d, and, of those who took vitamin A supplements, approximately 1,500 to 3,000 (g d was the maximum ingested. Therefore, the Food and Nutrition Board of the IOM of the National Academies concluded that the risk for exceeding the UL for vitamin A was small based on this data. Deficiency concerns were also felt to be minimal, except for those individuals within a subgroup of the population at risk for vitamin A deficiency. Based on all the evidence to date, the Food and Nutrition Board has concluded that while carotenoids appear beneficial and are vital for metabolism, more studies need to be evaluated and DRIs for carotenoids cannot be established at this time. At least five or more dietary servings of fruits and vegetables on a daily...

Series Editors Introduction

Epilepsy and the Ketogenic Diet, edited by Carl E. Stafstrom and Jong M. Rho is a unique addition to the Nutrition and Health Series and fully exemplifies the potential for this Series to include clinically relevant texts that are valuable to practitioners as well as cutting-edge researchers. Moreover, this text fills a critical gap because at present, there is no work that addresses both the clinical and basic aspects of the ketogenic diet (KD) in a comprehensive, up-to-date manner. The volume includes a detailed description of the KD, which is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate-protein diet that has been used for more than 80 years for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. Initiation of the diet has consistently resulted in effective seizure control in a high proportion of both children and adults when patients' seizures fail to be controlled by standard anticonvulsant drugs. The diet is now an indispensable part of the armamentarium of epilepsy treatments however,...

Nutritional Biochemistry And Metabolism

Dietary Copper Intake In mammals, virtually all copper is taken in through the diet and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, although small amounts can penetrate the skin when applied in specific ointments and even by leaching into the sweat from copper bracelets (14,15). Average intakes of copper by human adults, at least in the United States and Western Europe, are about 1 mg d, although they vary in the range from 0.6 to 1.6 mg (1,16,17). Very recently, a US Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of 0.9 mg for normal adult women and men (with higher levels for pregnant women) was hammered out by a committee of the National Academy of Sciences (18), replacing the earlier safe and adequate intake range of 1.5-3.0 mg d. This considerably lower recommended value is based in part on data obtained from copper balance studies in young men maintained for 2.5-6 wk on diets delivering specific levels of copper (from 0.66 to 0.38 and then 2.49 mg d) (16-19). These studies showed that, at...

What Are the Key Strategies in Obtaining Optimal Results When Instituting the KD

Calorie restriction and or regulation of fluid intake Clinicians typically monitor calorie intake carefully for children on the KD presumably to prevent unwanted weight gain with the high fat diet. However, laboratory studies have suggested that calorie restriction, per se, may have anticonvulsant results. How important is calorie restriction for clinical anticonvulsant efficacy Also, how important is it to monitor fluid intake Is KD efficacy related to dehydration Certainly, brain water balance (i.e., osmotic shifts) greatly affects neuronal excitability.

Minerals and vitamins

Seaweeds are rich sources of some important minerals and vitamins. In particular, seaweeds contain good amounts of iodine, calcium, and iron among others. Iodine content of seaweeds is incomparable with the highly consumed terrestrial vegetables as seaweeds are much better sources of iodine. However, amounts are varied with phylum, season, and environmental, geographical, and physiological variations. Brown algae have recognized as much important sources of iodine and have utilized extensively for the prevention and treatment of iodine deficiency goiter. Further, scientific reports link the potential of iodine in inhibiting tumorogenesis with the high amount of iodine in some seaweed species (Funahashi et al., 1999). In line with this capability of iodine in seaweeds, epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary seaweed content must have accounted for the low prevalence of breast cancer in some countries of Asia.

Present Situation And Potential Of Seaweeds For Novel Functional Food Product Developments

Isotonic drinks, bakery, and hypoallergenic baby foods. Further, ever-concerning chronic disease-related conditions such as cancer, high cholesterol, coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (type II), gastrointestinal disorders, osteoporosis, intestinal complications, and immune disorders including allergy have been used as prime focuses when developing these functional food products. When analyzing the supply structure of these functional foods, the main types of successful actors in the commercial functional food segment are multinational food companies with a broad product range and pharmaceutical or dietary products producing companies. Therefore, the combination of consumer acceptance, advances in science and technology, and scientifically backed evidence linking consumption of biochemical compounds in seaweed to disease and disease prevention can be taken as unprecedented opportunity for these food marketers to develop seaweed-based functional...

Gssg Nadph H 2gsh Nadp

Free radical scavenging is not always beneficial. For example, dietary polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), found in green tea react with radicals in a two step redox process. The EGCG is oxidized through the semiquinone radical to the quinone, while two radicals are reduced to nonradical forms. Both the EGCG semiquinone radical and the quinone are reactive species which can form covalent cross links to protein (Hagerman et al, 2003). Although the original radical is destroyed by the antioxidant EGCG, oxidative damage may catalase (heme iron) and glutathione peroxidase (Se), but deficiencies resulting in oxidative damage are rare. Selenium deficiency occurs in China when very low selenium intake is accompanied by a viral infection (Keshan disease). In contrast to specific nutrient deficiencies, caloric restriction in animals extends life span at least in part by minimizing age-related accumulation of oxidative damage (Finkel and Holbrook, 2000). Although the underlying...

Which Consequences of KD Are Necessary and Sufficient to Produce Anticonvulsant Effects

Calorie restriction Often correlated with KD is a reduction in total caloric intake. Indeed, clinical procedures often regulate calorie intake at less than 100 of the normal age-associated recommended allowance. And recent laboratory studies have found significant anticonvulsant effects of calorie restriction, independent of KD per se (although usually associated with at least some degree of ketonemia). Does calorie limitation play a significant role in KD-induced seizure control If so, how

Does KD Exert Antiepileptogenic As Well As Anticonvulsant Activity and If So

Interaction with features of the developing brain It is widely accepted that the immature brain is more seizure-prone than the adult brain, owing to the relatively slow maturation of a large number of important control mechanisms (e.g., inhibition, membrane pumps, and transporters). Because KD seems to be particularly effective in pediatric epilepsies, it is possible that the diet helps the brain mature faster, and or provides some missing or weak element characteristic of the immature central nervous system. Alternatively, it is possible that the KD interacts with salient developmental processes, e.g., brain plasticity, that are pro-epileptogenic. In either case, the KD may not only provide seizure-related protection, but also influence other brain functions that depend on matura-tional mechanisms. Clearly, the apparent simplicity of the KD a straightforward dietary approach to a significant clinical problem masks a very complex set of potential avenues and mechanisms of action. For...

Emergence Of Modern Genetics And Experimental Pharmacogenetics

The mid-1980s, dozens of additional traits had been added to the list of drug-metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of physiological importance in support of this view. We also learned that such sensitivities might also extend to foodstuffs as well as to sporadic disorders associated with exposures to hazardous chemicals in the workplace. This was no great surprise because pharmacologists and toxicologists had demonstrated that the biotransformation of dietary components and other exogenous chemicals involved the same enzymes as those that biotransform drugs. Because certain drug-metabolizing enzymes were also capable of metabolizing certain hormones and other endogenous messengers, variation in hormonal response was another potential hallmark of pharmacogenetics.

Sequestration of iron

Silicic acid, a ubiquitously distributed component of cereals and other foods, forms complexes with inorganic iron, which enable the safe sequestration of iron in tissues, decreasing its ability to generate ROS, initiate membrane lipid peroxidation, and to mobilize leukocytes (Birchall, 1993). Iron, per se, as oxygen-bridged ferrous-ferric complexes may initiate lipid peroxidation (Minotti and Aust, 1989). Dietary supplementation of iron-enhanced dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal cancer in rats, but this was reversed by phytic acid, a component of dietary fibre, probably due to the chelation of the iron by phytic acid, with the consequent decreased ability of the iron to generage ROS (Nelson et al, 1989).

Reduces the risk of colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer, which is characterized by neoplasia in the colon, rectum, or vermiform appendix, is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. More than half of the deaths of colorectal cancer are reported from the developed regions of the world. Several studies suggested that diets high in red and processed meat, as well as those low in fiber, are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (Chao et al., 2005 Wakai et al., 2007). Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to involve in reducing the risk of colorectal cancer through several protective mechanisms including dilution of fecal carcinogens, reduction of transit time of feces through the bowel, production of short chain fatty acids which promote anticarcinogenic action, and binding of carcinogenic bile acids (Lipkin et al, 1999). Soluble fiber in seaweed can bind with water 20 times of their own volume exhibiting strong hydrocolloidal properties of its network structure. Therefore, seaweed added to the...

Disease Induced Alterations in Pharmacokinetics

IMPAIRED RENAL CLEARANCE OF DRUGS If a drug is cleared primarily by the kidney, dose modification should be considered in patients with renal dysfunction. When renal clearance is diminished, the desired effect can be maintained either by decreasing the dose or lengthening the dose interval. Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on serum creatinine, ideal body weight, and age provides an approximation of the renal clearance of many drugs.

Suppresses gastrointestinal inflammation

Seaweed polysaccharide fiber in the diet has shown to be effective in suppressing inflammation in the stomach and reducing the risk of gastro-duodenal ulcers. Most of the soluble types of fiber in algae help to develop a viscous layer next to the epithelial margin of the upper digestive tract displaying a protective and coating effect against the digestive enzymes and low pH environment. Therefore, the chances of inflammating the epithelial layer either by chemicals or pathogenic microorganisms are minimized. In addition, some seaweed dietary fiber contributes to regenerate the damaged mucous membrane. Clinical trials showed that sodium alginate promotes the regeneration of mucous membrane in the stomach, suppresses inflammation, and eradicates colonies of Helicobacter pylori in the mucous membrane (Khotimchenko et al., 2001). In support of the above observations, the effects of alginic acid and its derivatives for the treatment of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers were also studied...

Selection Of Topics For Monographs

Topics are selected on the basis of two main criteria (a) there is evidence of human exposure, and (b) there is some evidence or suspicion of carcinogenicity. The term 'agent' is used to include individual chemical compounds, groups of related chemical compounds, physical agents (such as radiation) and biological factors (such as viruses). Exposures to mixtures of agents may occur in occupational exposures and as a result of personal and cultural habits (like smoking and dietary practices). Chemical analogues and compounds with biological or physical characteristics similar to those of suspected carcinogens may also be considered, even in the absence of data on a possible carcinogenic effect in humans or experimental animals.

Encourages the action of probiotics

Though the seaweed fiber is not digested by the enzymes in the upper digestive track (stomach and duodenum) of humans, it is partially degraded by the microflora in the colon, the lower segment of the digestive system. The colonic microflora is a complex and co-existing microbial ecosystem of potentially pathogenic and beneficial bacteria associated with gut lymphoid tissue. Probiotics, potentially health-promoting bacteria in the gut lymphoid tissue, and prebiotics, the fermentable substrates of such bacteria including dietary fiber, play a key role in promoting digestive health and in nutrition by salvaging nutrient and energy producing end metabolic products, like short chain fatty acids. Dietary modulation of the intestinal microflora can be achieved via either oral administration of probiotics or prebiotic compounds. Fermentation of fiber from brown seaweed with human fecal bacteria has indicated that probiotics follow their original fermentation pathways as exhibited with...

Nutritionrelated Other Health Benefits Of Seaweed

In addition to the above discussed nutrients, diverse amount of phenolic molecules has been identified from seaweed and is classified under different groups of phytochemicals. Those molecules virtually do not play the roles of nutrients and proven to have different bioactive properties associated with enhancing physical fitness to refrain from diseases or to exert therapeutic effects against certain illnesses. However, the medicinal effects of such molecules are not discussed in this chapter. Non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular dieses have a strong relationship with dietary habits and nutritional profiles of the food. Therefore, next few sections of this chapter address the nutrition-related several health effects of seaweed fiber, other than previously mentioned, and its contribution to enhance digestive health.

Good Manufacturing Practices

Overriding the entire issue of authenticity, purity, and quality are the GMPs mandated by law to be used in the manufacture of botanical dietary supplements. The FDA has the primary regulatory jurisdiction over the manufacture of botanical supplements and botanical drugs. For botanical supplements, manufacturers are required to develop standards of identity, purity, strength, and composition and to manufacture the product in a manner that will prevent adulteration. Botanical drugs are subjected to the same GMPs applied to conventional pharmaceuticals. Quality means that the dietary supplement consistently meets the established specifications for identity, purity, strength and composition and limits on contaminants and has been manufactured, packaged, labeled and held under conditions to prevent adulteration (Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations)

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