World War I Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Continue reading...

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Jumpstart Liberty Review

The world faces different forms of natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcano blast, and many others. On the other hand, the world might also face man-made disasters such as nuclear war, cold war or even electromagnetic pulse (EMP). In a case of any of the disasters striking, you would love to see your friends and family safe from the danger. These disasters, not only affects the country citizens but also the economy. Therefore, you might need ideas on how to do be safe. That is why you need the Jumpstart Liberty book. It is a well-drafted guide, which gives out vital information on ways in which you can handle yourself, your family and friends, in case of the tough moments ahead. The book is written by Ken White, with a view of helping us access several survival tricks with minimal struggle and problems. This is a fantastic guide that will prove handy in the hour of need. Get a copy today and learn how to face unforeseen occurrences. Continue reading...

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Debebe Fikremariam MD and Mario Serafini DO

Traditional biomedical methods of treating chronic pain have proven unsatisfactory both from the patients' and providers' prospective and this fomented a demand for effective therapy (Loeser). John Bonica first appreciated the need for a multidisciplinary approach to chronic pain during World War II after several months of experience in treating military personnel with the variety of pain problems (Loeser). Bonica put the concept of the multidis-ciplinary approach for the diagnosis and therapy of complex chronic pain problems during

Blood And Urine Chemistry

An alternative technique, flow cytometry, was also developed in stages between the late 1940s and the early 1970s. Frank Gucker at Northwestern University developed a machine for counting bacteria in a laminar stream of air during World War II and used it to test gas masks, the work subsequently being declassified and published in 1947. Louis Kamentsky at IBM Laboratories and Mack Fulwyler at the Los Alamos National Laboratory experimented with fluidic switching and electrostatic cell detectors, respectively, and both described cell sorters in 1965. The modern approach of detecting cells stained with fluorescent antibodies was developed in 1972 by Leonard Herzenberg and his team at Stanford University, who coined the term fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS).

Emergence Of Modern Genetics And Experimental Pharmacogenetics

Throughout the decade prior to 1950, much of the world had been engaged in and was recovering from World War II, and many scientists had participated in Working with various chromatographic technologies that became available in the 1950s, and drawing on various pharmacological and biochemical studies performed on patients and members of their families, pharmacologists disclosed new relationships between genetically conditioned differences in drug response and their metabolic fate. ''Primaquine sensitivity,'' ''succinylcholine sensitivity, and isoniazid-induced neuropathy were the drug-related traits first to be intensely scrutinized in this fashion. Primaquine, an antimalarial drug that was used in the South Pacific during World War II, caused hemolysis of red blood cells in a large fraction of black Africans succinylcholine (also called suxamethonium), a muscle relaxant drug used as an adjunct in general anesthesia, caused prolonged paralysis and apnea (''succinylcholine or...

Box 31 The Birth Of A Dedicated Biotechnology Company [1

Traditionally drug discovery and development in the pharmaceutical industry relied on chemistry. Drug discovery and much of development was carried out by medicinal chemists focusing on chemical structures and corresponding functional activities of NMEs. Only limited biochemical and pharmacological information was available regarding the therapeutic target and the drug candidate. This approach was especially characteristic of drugs developed in the two or three decades following World War II. Many of these drugs and NMEs were selected based on crude biologic screening of chemical compounds. Those engaged in drug discovery were said to be playing molecular roulette. Many compounds were screened, from which one or two agents were eventually approved for human use 3 .

Pain And Suffering What Are They

Definition and its supporting annotations gently but surely dissolve any necessary connection between pain and tissue damage. Extensive tissue damage may occur without pain, as Henry K Beecher showed in his classic study of soldiers wounded in the Second World War.23, 24 Pain may also occur in the total absence of tissue damage, as researchers recently confirmed.25 Most important, with a daring that merits repetition, the IASP definition recognizes that pain is always a subjective, psychological state. No purely pathophysiological model of pain can encompass such recognitions. At the same time, the task force authors also state in the annotation what is surely true that pain, despite its psychological and subjective nature, most often has a proximate physical cause.'' In short, the IASP definition proves to be concise, flexible, and accurate. It has served the community of pain medicine very well. Naturally, there are voices today arguing that we should get rid of it.

Biological Properties Medicinal Applications Of Laminaria

Dietary use of Laminaria dates back to the days of the First World War when it was used in raw form as a feed supplement for horses. It is used as a food, principally in Asian countries, where it is valued for its flavor, mineral content, and health giving benefits. The most important components with a medicinal point of view are Laminaria's polysaccharides. It contains alginates, laminarin, laminine, and fucoidan as well as a number of other polysaccharides and simple sugars.

The Control of Thyroid Hormones The Paradigm for Endocrine Control

The intensive research into automatic weapon control systems during World War II (James et al., 1947) seems to have influenced Hoskins (1949) who formally conceived the pituitary-thyroid axis as a servomechanism. In an otherwise unassuming editorial, he outlined the principles of the servocontrol system which have proved the basis for endocrine physiology ever since. One factor, however, eluded Hoskins the means by which the control mechanism was set the factor that predetermined the level of circulating thyroid hormones.

Properties Relevant to Nuclear Medicine

The existence of technetium was predicted by Mendeleev in 1869 on the basis of trends in the periodic table. Mendeleev reported that the unknown element should be similar to manganese and gave it the name 'ekamanganese'. In 1925, an erroneous claim of the discovery of element 43, which was named masurium, was published.1 The actual discovery was published in 1937, when Perrier and Segre reported the isolation of element 43 from a sample of molybdenum that was bombarded with deuterons from the Berkeley cyclotron.2 The official naming of element 43 as technetium occurred just after the end of World War II.3

Ethnic Pharmacogenetics

Individuals of different ethnic or raciogeographic origin are important sources of information on variations in response to drugs and other exogenous substances. Prior to the 1920s, such variations were reported very infrequently in the medical literature. In one early study, Marshall and colleagues found that blacks were much more resistant than whites to the blistering of skin by mustard gas caused by exposure to this biological weapon during World War I.1 In other reports, blacks were found to be less susceptible to slowing of the pulse than whites by small doses of atropine. Several investigators published observations that ephed-rine and various other mydriatic agents such as cocaine and pseudoephedrine dilated the pupils of Chinese and African blacks only slightly compared with those of whites. During the 1930s, ethnic studies of ''taste blindness,'' a hereditary deficit in sensory perception, showed that the frequency of nontasters in European populations was appreciably higher...

Grappling With Race And Ethnicity During The Twentieth Century

Ethnically related variations in the action of genes was an outgrowth of observations by L. Hirschfeld and H. Hirschfeld first reported in 1919. The Hirschfelds were army physicians in the Balkans, and they used this opportunity to determine the blood groups of soldiers of various races and nationalities brought together as an accident of World War I. They found significant differences in the frequencies of the four ABO blood groups in the 16 nationalities studied.5

Utility Of Isotopes In Defining Enzyme Stereochemistry

Just after World War II, when isotopes were first intensively studied and when they became so widely available, biochemists have obtained valuable stereochemical information about enzyme catalysis through the use of isotopi-cally labeled substrates. This approach exploits the fact that enzymes active sites are inherently chiral, simply because enzymes are polypeptides or polynucleotides consisting of asymmetric units, L-amino acids or ribo- and deoxyribo-nucleotides. Likewise, many substrates and coenzymes are chiral or prochiral (see below), and they frequently interact with an enzyme in a stereochemically specific or selective manner. The basic aspects of stereochemistry have already been described in Section 2.9, and this section focuses on several classes of reactions that illustrate the versatility of isotopes in defining enzyme stereochemistry.

Frequency Of Pharmacogenetic Ethnic Specificities

It was recognized in the 1930s and 1940s that sudden hemolytic anemia induced by sulfanilamide and primaquine occurs preferentially in black males and other dark-skinned persons.24-26 The cause of this trait, G6PD deficiency, was discovered in World War II servicemen exposed to preventive and therapeutic treatment with a number of antimalarial drugs (primaquine, pamaquine, pento-quine, and isopentoquine). More than 400 million people worldwide are affected. Those of African, Mediterranean, and Southeast Asian descent are particularly susceptible to this trait in some populations between 10 and 60 of males are affected.

Concluding Remarks

The value of isotopes in mechanistic work on enzyme-catalyzed reactions was firmly established by the carbon-13 tracer studies conducted at Iowa State University by Harlan Wood and Chester Werkman in the 1930s using what was then the state-of-the-art isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. These biochemists showed for the first time that carbon dioxide could be metabolically mobilized into various carboxylic acids in the Propionobacter, a discovery that culminated in the isolation of numerous carboxylases. As mentioned in Chapter 1, however, it was World War II that brought a heightened interest in the physics of radar and sonar, two processes that led almost immediately to the invention of NMR spectroscopy, as well as the use of shock tubes in chemical relaxation experiments. So too did that war result in a deeper understanding and much wider application of stable and radioactive isotope methods. The establishment of isotope laboratories in Cambridge and Oak Ridge took full advantage of the...

BiOCHEMiStry Milestones Part li

Figure 8.3 Linus Pauling also won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his efforts to end open--air testing of nuclear weapons, making him the only person to win two unshared Nobel Prizes. Figure 8.3 Linus Pauling also won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his efforts to end open--air testing of nuclear weapons, making him the only person to win two unshared Nobel Prizes.

Synthesis of Marine Bioregulators Medicinis and Related Compounds

Extensive human endeavor to elucidate the structures and functions of natural products of terrestrial organisms gave us substantial knowledge about terrestrial natural products. In contrast, modern human endeavor to clarify the structures and functions of marine natural products began in the 1950s after World War II. There remains many things to do. Studies on biofunctional molecules of marine origin will broaden our knowledge about their roles in marine ecological system, and also give us opportunities to design useful medicinals by modifying their structures. This chapter describes my synthetic works on marine antifeedants, medicinal candidates, and glycosphingolipids of medicinal interests.

Bioinformation On The Internet 31 Brief history of bioinformation on the Internet

The Internet was conceived in the late 1960's under a contract from the United States Department of Defence. It connected four universities in the US and was designed to provide communications in the event that one of the sites was destroyed in a nuclear attack. Throughout the 70's and 80's networking between sites over shared digital lines remained within the realm of academics and the military little or no connectivity to these networks was established by biotechnology companies until 1995. Most large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies shared data either using proprietary dedicated networks, phone lines or by physically shipping magnetic media. Little or no corporate presence was found on the Internet, primarily due to the fact that the backbone of the Internet was owned by a US government agency (NSFNET) that did not allow commercial traffic over the network. With the emergence of the world wide web (WWW) and NCSA's Mosaic web browser in 1993 the Internet was transformed...

Radioactive Heavy Metals

The widespread production and use of radioactive heavy metals for nuclear generation of electricity, nuclear weapons, laboratory research, manufacturing, and medical diagnosis have generated unique problems in dealing with accidental poisoning by such metals. Because the toxicity of radioactive metals is almost entirely a consequence of ionizing radiation, the therapeutic objective following exposure is chelation of the metals and their removal from the body as rapidly and completely as possible. Treatment of the acute radiation syndrome is largely symptomatic. Attempts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of organic reducing agents, such as mercaptamine (cysteamine), administered to prevent the formation of free radicals success has been limited. Major products of a nuclear accident or the use of nuclear weapons include 239Pu, 137Cs, 144Ce, and 90Sr. Isotopes of Sr and Ra are extremely difficult to remove from the body with chelating agents. Several factors are involved in...

Known Effects of Plant and Fungal Estrogens in Animals and Humans

In World War II, people in the Netherlands consumed large quantities of tulip bulbs, containing high levels of estrogenic activity, and many women displayed signs of estrogenism, including uterine bleeding and other abnormalities of the menstrual cycle 48-50 . In addition, an extract from the roots of Pueraria mirifica in Thailand yielded miroestrol, an estrogenic substance that was as potent in increasing uterine weight in rats as DES when administered orally (both of which are orders of magnitude more potent than oral estradiol) and about 70 as active as estradiol when administered by subcutaneous injection 51 . A limited clinical trial with miroestrol was carried out to examine the utility of this plant estrogen for treatment of amenorrhea in women. When miroestrol was administered orally at doses of 1 or 5 mg per day for several days, marked es-trogenic responses were seen, but the onset of effects was slow and in some cases persisted after the cessation of treatment. More...

O Synthetic Cholinergic Blocking Agents

Immagini Degli Idrocarburi

The solanaceous alkaloids are generally agreed to be potent parasympatholytics, but they have the undesirable property of producing a wide range of effects through their nonspecific blockade of autonomic functions. Efforts to use the antispasmodic effect of the alkaloids most often result in side effects such as dryness of the mouth and fluctuations in pulse rate. Therefore, synthesis of compounds possessing specific cholinolytic actions has been a very desirable field of study. Few prototypical drugs were as avidly dissected in the minds of researchers as atropine in attempts to modify its structure to separate the numerous useful activities (i.e., antispasmodic, antisecretory, mydriatic, and cyclo-plegic). Most early research was carried out in the pre- and post-World War II era before muscarinic receptor subtypes were known.

Cellulose and Its Use in Blood Purification

The next milestone was the development of an artificial kidney by Kolff in the Netherlands, which used cellulose tubing wrapped around a rotating drum 20 . In this device, a blood-filled tube was connected to the patient's circulatory system and was wrapped concentrically around a rotating wooden drum placed horizontally in a trough containing an electrolyte solution. Blood flow in the circuit was facilitated by a pump and as the membrane passed through the bath, the uraemic toxins would pass into the electrolyte solution. Examples of the Kolff rotating drum kidney were sent after World War II to the Peter Brent Brigham Hospital in Boston, where they were modified, and the modified machines became known as the Kolff-Brigham kidney. Between 1954 and 1962, many such devices were shipped from Boston to other hospitals worldwide and formed the basis of treatment of acute renal failure. Although such devices could remove waste products or toxins, whose levels had increased as a consequence...

Hypolipidemic Hypocholesterolemic Drugs

The fact that even young men can develop atherosclerosis was reported following autopsies of German soldiers during World War I. However, it was a U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology report toward the end of the Korean War (Enos et al., 1953) showing that young men (average age 22) had evidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) that made the medical profession take note of the epidemic that was CHD. The problem is still extensive in spite of considerable, but slow, progress since the 1950s. By the early 1980s there were 5.4 million Americans with symptomatic diagnosed CHD. The number of undiagnosed cases is, of course, unknown. In any case, the results were 1.5 million heart attacks and over 550,000 deaths. A review of the medical literature since the late 1950s shows the name cholesterol, and particularly hypercholesterolemia (HPC), to be associated with CHD with increasing frequency. By the early 1970s HPC was implicated as the primary CHD risk factor. Hypertension and smoking...

Historical Perspective Of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

As a result of his avocation, Mendel developed the principles of heredity, and thereby laid the basis of modern genetics. While the listing of biotechnology in the dictionary did not occur until 1979, the fermentation technology we use today to produce recombinant proteins was first used in World War I to ferment corn starch (with the help of Clostridium acetobutylicum) and produce acetone for manufacturing explosives. Fermentation technology took on even greater importance with the development after World War II to produce antibiotics.

Detoxify The Phosphothioate By Phosphatase

Hexaethyltetraphosphate (HETP) and Tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP). HETP and TEPP are compounds that also show anticholinesterase activity. HETP was developed by the Germans during World War II and is used as an insecticide against aphids. When used as insecticides, these compounds have the advantage of being hydrolyzed rapidly to the relatively nontoxic, water-soluble compounds phosphoric acid and ethyl alcohol. Fruit trees or vegetables sprayed with this type of compound retain no harmful residue after a period of a few days or weeks, depending on the weather conditions. Workers spraying with these agents should use extreme caution so that the vapors are not breathed and none of the vapor or liquid comes in contact with the eyes or skin.

Caffeine and effect

The interaction of caffeine and stress One of the major contributing factors in anxiety and the anxiety disorders is stress, and it is reasonable to hypothesize that this is an area of psychological functioning in which caffeine may be implicated.16 Ongoing research has clearly demonstrated the destructive psychological and physiological effects of stress. One of the most serious reactions is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which was reported at least as far back as 1755 when a peasant family was trapped by an avalanche in the Italian Alps.216 It has been widely studied in Vietnam veterans217,218 and in veterans of World War II and the Korean War.219 In civilians, PTSD is seen in 38 of burn victims220 and 46 of those involved in motor vehicle accidents.221 More generally, a study of college students revealed that any of a wide variety of prior traumatic experiences could produce the symptoms of PTSD.222 There is now some evidence that caffeine may be a contributing factor in...

The Resistance Nodulation

Active drug exporters are extremely important for medical applications (6). However, they did not develop with the advent of modern medicine, but instead became activated for drug export upon the use of these compounds by humans, particularly for use in farm animals. The amounts used for animals, raised for meat production, exceed those used for humans by over 1000fold (5, 6). Our studies have led us to conclude that these transporters have been in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes for billions of years. They probably evolved for three distinct purposes (a) to provide protection from toxic substances secreted by other organisms for the purpose of biological warfare, (b) to catalyze secretion of toxic substances made by the organism possessing these drug export pumps, thereby maintaining low, non-toxic levels of the substances in the cytoplasms of the producing organisms, and (c) to allow drug export via normal metabolite exporters when structural features of the drug and metabolite...

The Treatment of Pain

The relationship between the psyche and the presence and importance of pain is not a new concept. Coping, learning, the role of anxiety, and concurrent psychiatric illness have all been identified as altering pain perception and success of pain therapies. In the 20th century, many new ideas in psychology emerged, which directly affected how pain is treated today. During World War II, Henry Beecher astutely noted that on the battlefield, seriously wounded soldiers reported less pain than civilian patients in the Massachusetts General Hospital recovery room. However, at a later time these same patients would complain vehemently about even minor physical insults. These observations caused Beecher to conclude that the experience of pain was derived from a complex interaction between physical sensation, cognition, and emotional reaction (Beecher 1946). In the 1950s, based on Freudian ideals, the link between psychiatric illness and pain was explored by Engel. By the mid-1960s, it was...

Molecular Foundations Of Early Pharmacology And Genetics

Eventually, a few biologists began to take note of Garrod's keen foresight regarding the chemical individuality of humans (Figure 1.2). In 1918, Marshall and co-workers reported that black soldiers were much more resistant than whites to the blistering of skin from exposure to mustard gas, a substance introduced as a chemical warfare agent in the first World War.3 In 1919, Hirschfeld and Hirschfeld, building on Landsteiner's analysis of isoagglutinins in human blood, were the first to describe serological differences between the blood of Europeans, Middle Easterners, and Asians by examining 500-1000 persons of each of 10 racial groups, finding remarkable racial differences in the proportions of blood groups A and B.4 By 1929, reports on racial differences in ophthalmic effects of cocaine, euphthalmine, ephedrine, and atropine had appeared,5 and during the 1920s and 1930s hereditary deficits in two modalities of sensory perception, ''odor

Possible Causes for Concern

Although, as previously noted, interest in phytoestrogens arose from the detection of adverse effects in a number of domestic and other species, there is a lack of evidence of obvious adverse effects in human populations that have traditionally consumed diets high in fruits or vegetables (e.g. the Asian countries). There are only isolated reports of adverse oestrogen-related effects, for example menstrual disorders in Dutch women who apparently consumed large quantities of tulip bulbs during the Second World War.i20 However, even here the effects have not been established as being causally related to phytoestrogens. The human experimental and epidemiological evidence is generally supportive of the beneficial nature of a diet rich in foodstuffs containing phytoestrogens. Thus, it might at first sight be surprising that concerns have been expressed over the potential for phytoestrogens to cause adverse effects.

Family History

My father's older brother, Sol, was a infantryman during World War I and came home in need of convalescence. Grandfather thought that he would recover best in a rural environment. So, once again sold his home and equipment and bought a 400 acre dairy farm in the Catskill region of New York State. To supplement the income from the dairy, he built several cabins that were rented to people seeking summer vacations in the country. My mother was then working as a seamstress in the garment district of Manhattan and was brought, by her older sister, for a vacation on grandfather's farm. There my parents met, romance blossomed, and they were married a few years later.


Francis Harry Compton Crick was born on 8 June 1916 in Northampton, England. He studied physics at University College, London, where he obtained a BSc in 1937. He then started his PhD in physics, which was interrupted in 1939 by the outbreak of World War II. Crick worked as a scientist for the British Admiralty until he left in 1947 to study biology in Cambridge, where he worked at the Strangeways Research Laboratory.

Alkylating Agents

Mustard gas 7.11 was used in the World War I as a chemical warfare agent. Exposure to this gas led to damage to bone marrow and lymph tissue. Investigations into the mode of action of these chemical warfare agents showed that their action was proportional to the rate at which the cells were dividing. Further studies then led to the use of nitrogen analogues 7.12 in the treatment of cancers of lymph tissues. It is thought that these drugs alkylate the C-7 position of guanine 7.13 in each of the double strands of DNA bringing about cross-linking and thus interfering with the separation of the strands during mitosis. The reactivity of the chlorine atoms to nucleophilic substitution 7.14-7.16 is enhanced by neighbouring group participation 7.15 from the nitrogen atom of the nitrogen mustard. The positive charge on theN7ofthe guanine may also bring about chain fission in the nucleic acid.

Scheme 131

Little could the biochemists of the 1940s have imagined that the Gibbs energy liberated during ATP hydrolysis energizes more than a thousand different protein-sized molecular machines, each having its own affinity-modulated mechanism to accomplish mechanical work. A major breakthrough was the post-World War II development of biological electron microscopy, which almost immediately revealed the ultrastructure of striated muscle and biomembranes. Such information, coupled with the discovery of myosin's intrinsic ATPase activity (Engelhardt and Lyubinova, 1939) led to the actomyosin cross-bridge cycle model (Huxley, 1954), and Skou (1957) discovered the sodium, potassium ATPase responsible for bioelectricity. Others soon discovered the proteins that formed the membrane-associated motors responsible for active transport of various other ions and solutes, and a theme emerged that transport is most often coupled to an energy-yielding reaction ATP hydrolysis. The subsequent discovery of...

The 8Aminoquinolines

In the late nineteenth century, Guttmann and Ehrlich (1891) reported a low level of antimalarial activity by the basic dye methylene blue (Fig. 7-6). This resulted from Ehrlich's early work with dye staining of microorganisms. Prompted by a World War I quinine shortage in Germany, synthesis research utilized this clue to find that dialkylaminoalkyl moieties, replacing one methyl group of the dye's diemthylamino function, intensified the activity. Introducing such groups into the quinolines, particularly aminoquinolines, resulted in more active compounds. After several dialkylaminoalkyl substitutions on 8-aminoquinolines resulted in some active compounds, the 8 (4-diethylamino-l-methy-butyl) amino derivative of 6-methoxyquinoline pamaquine was introduced in 1926. Unlike quinine, this drug was able to reduce the relapsing episodes of vivax malaria. Later, structural modifications produced the unsubstituted primary aminoalkyl derivative, primaquine, whose higher activity and considerably...

Nitrogen Mustards

Sulfur mustard (mustard gas, yperite) was used in World War I for chemical warfare because it is an extremely irritant vesicant agent. After the war, it was realized that it also caused systemic effects such as leukopenia, aplasia of the bone marrow, dissolution of lymphoid tissue, and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. This suggested a possible role for this compound in cancer treatment, but

Amoxicillin Amoxil

It was discovered serendipitously by Alexander Fleming in 1928 that a fungus of the Penicillum family produces a material that has powerful antimicrobial activity. For that discovery, he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945 along with H.W. Florey and E.B. Chain. The latter two followed up on Fleming's finding years later and their studies led to the successful application of penicillin to humans in 1943. Because many soldiers in World War II were dying of wound-related infections, a massive wartime program was undertaken by the Allies on the development of Fleming's antibiotic, which became known as penicillin. A consortium of US and UK scientists in universities and in industry worked together under the government wartime research program to determine ways to purify penicillin, determine the chemical structure and find a method for mass production. That effort succeeded, and by 1944 sufficient penicillin G had been made for routine use by the military.

Pascale Anderl

Transport systems are essential to every living cell. They allow all essential nutrients to enter the cell and its compartments, regulate the cytoplasmic concentrations of metabolites by excretion mechanisms, control the concentration of ions inside the cell, which is very different from that outside the cell, export macromolecules such as complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and DNA, catalyse export and uptake of signalling molecules that mediate intercellular communication, prevent toxic effects of drugs and toxins by mediating active efflux, and participate in biological warfare by exporting biologically active agents that

Background History

After World War II, intracellular recording demonstrated quantal transmitter release 15 and several different electron microscopic laboratories discovered synaptic vesicles. Now the skeptics were convinced. The standard model was summarized in classical publications of Bernard Katz and John Eccles. Excitatory transmission produced currents that depolarized the postsynaptic membrane, while inhibitory transmission hyperpolarized it, changing the membrane potential in the opposite direction 16,17 . These studies and theories considered only rapid responses, on a millisecond time scale. They didn't study stability of transmitter properties over periods longer than a day or the effects of disease and development.

The History

The following decades were strongly influenced by the events of the II World War and psychiatric genetics, together with biological psychiatry as a whole, suffered from a long and widespread stigma in favour of phenomenology, psychoanalysis or, more recently, social approaches. Finally, in the late sixties and seventies the need to bridge the gap between psychiatry and the other rapidly advancing fields of medicine, prompted many worldwide general and mental health authorities (World Health Organization, American Psychiatric Association) to turn the psychiatric research to biological and genetic studies.

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